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  • Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration  (6)
  • physical habitat  (2)
  • 1
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2018-06-08
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: Looking at EAP Intervention Techniques; Vancouver, British Columbia; Canada
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  • 2
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    Publication Date: 2018-06-08
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: Looking at EAP Intervention Techniques; Vancouver, British Columbia; Canada
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-5117
    Keywords: index of biotic integrity ; stream ; fish ; erosion ; sediment ; physical habitat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Indices of biotic integrity (1131) were computed for two annual fish collections from 27 locations along the bluffline bordering the Mississippi River alluvial plain in northwestern Mississippi. Study sites exhibited varying degrees of physical habitat degradation due to accelerated channel erosion. Objectives of index application were to quantify existing environmental quality and to test the IBI as a tool for relating fish population characteristics to physical degradation. Physical habitat data were collected concurrently with fish at all sites, and physical habitat descriptors were compared with the IBI scores and component metrics. Three to 23 fish species were captured from each site, and species richness explained 64–70% of the variance in IBI scores. Fish collections were dominated by insectivores tolerant of habitat and water quality degradation. Suckers and piscivores were relatively uncommon. The IBI scores were generally not reflective of physical habitat conditions. Variation in IBI scores was indicative of only the grossest differences in physical habitat quality. Weak relationships between physical habitat quality and IBI scores may have been due to large temporal variations in biotic integrity typical of degraded habitats. Alternatively, water quality degradation, which we did not measure, may have confounded relationships between physical habitat and fish metrics. Regional application of the IBI as a habitat assessment tool in landscapes with widespread physical degradation must overcome lack of suitable reference sites, large temporal variation in IBI scores, and small numbers of fish per collection, leading to lower confidence levels for IBI scores. The scarcity of lightly impacted sites may hinder detection of biotic integrity response along gradients of physical habitat quality.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-5117
    Keywords: stream restoration ; fish ; erosion ; sediment ; physical habitat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Channel incision has major impacts on stream corridor ecosystems, leading to reduced spatial habitat heterogeneity, greater temporal instability, less stream-floodplain interaction, and shifts in fish community structure. Most literature dealing with channel incision examines physical processes and erosion control. A study of incised warmwater stream rehabilitation was conducted to develop and demonstrate techniques that would be economically feasible for integration with more orthodox, extensively employed watershed stabilization techniques (e.g., structural bank protection, grade control structures, small reservoirs, and land treatment). One-km reaches of each of five northwest Mississippi streams with contributing drainage areas between 16 and 205 km2 were selected for a 5-year study. During the study two reaches were modified by adding woody vegetation and stone structure to rehabilitate habitats degraded by erosion and channelization. The other three reaches provided reference data, as two of them were degraded but not rehabilitated, and the third was only lightly degraded. Rehabilitation approaches were guided by conceptual models of incised channel evolution and fish community structure in small warmwater streams. These models indicated that rehabilitation efforts should focus on aggradational reaches in the downstream portions of incising watersheds, and that ecological status could be improved by inducing formation and maintenance of stable pool habitats. Fish and physical habitat attributes were sampled from each stream during the Spring and Fall for 5 years, and thalweg and cross-section surveys were performed twice during the same period. Rehabilitation increased pool habitat availability, and made the treated sites physically more similar to the lightly degraded reference site. Fish communities generally responded as suggested by the aforementioned conceptual model of fish community structure. Species composition shifted away from small colonists (principally cyprinids and small centrarchids) toward larger centrarchids, catostomids, and ictalurids. Fish density and species richness increased at one rehabilitated site but remained stable at the other, suggesting that the sites occupied different initial states and endpoints within the conceptual model, and differed in their accessibility to sources of colonizing organisms. These experiments suggest that major gains in stream ecosystem rehabilitation can be made through relatively modest but well-designed efforts to modify degraded physical habitats.
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  • 5
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2019-07-10
    Description: Evidence for dissected duricrust was identified in high resolution MOC images. Analysis of all available images was used to map the global distribution of this terrain. It is apparently restricted to two latitude bands: 30-60 deg. N and 30-60 deg. S.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Science XXXI; LPI-Contrib-1000
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-07-20
    Description: The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover has spent the last two years investigating a prominent resistant ridge, informally named the Vera Rubin Ridge (VRR), at the base of Mount Sharp (Aeolis Mons). The ridge has been a high priority science target for the MSL mission since landing in Gale crater more than 6 years ago because of the detection of a strong hematite spectral signature, and its distinct topography. Examining the chemistry of the ridge can aid in determining the relationship to other rocks analyzed during the rover traverse, specifically the Murray formation (fm) encountered below the ridge. We can also determine compositional trends with elevation and/or laterally within the ridge, and whether spectral properties observed on the ridge, both from orbit and in situ, correspond with changes in chemistry. The composition of the ridge, combined with mineralogy of drilled samples, can help to elucidate bigger picture questions regarding depositional environment, possible changing lake water chemistry and diagenetic/alteration history.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: JSC-E-DAA-TN66081 , Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (LPSC); 18-22 Mar. 2019; Woodlands, TX; United States
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-08-06
    Description: The S contents of rocks and soils are indicative of various alteration processes on Mars, e.g.[1]. It has been quantified along traverses at 4 landing sites Pathfinder, both MERs and MSL by the APXS [2,3]. At the MSL and MER sites, sulfur abundances, correlations with likely bound cations and other elements, and complementary mineralogical and textural data have provided important insights into alteration processes and periods of more habitable environments in the distant past.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: JSC-E-DAA-TN70393 , International Conference on Mars; Jul 22, 2019 - Jul 25, 2019; Pasadena, CA; United States
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-30
    Description: Characterizing the history of aqueous activity at the martian surface has been an objective of the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) and the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL). Although the geologic context of the three landing sites are different, comparisons across the datasets can provide greater insight than using data from one mission alone. The Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) is common to all three rovers (Spirit at Gusev crater, Opportunity at Meridiani Planum, and Curiosity at Gale crater) and provides a consistent basis for these comparisons. Soil and Dust: Fine grained basaltic soils and dust are remarkably uniform in chemical composition across multiple landing sites. These similarities in the concentrations of major, minor, and a few trace elements (Fig. 1) are indicative of planet-wide consistency in the composition of source materials for the soils. S and Cl vary by a factor of two in the soil and dust, but there is no clear association with any bulk cation (e.g., no correlation between S and total Ca, Mg, or Fe in soils). These volatile elements, however, are clearly associated with the nanophase-ferric iron component in the soil established by Mssbauer spectroscopy [1,2]. S and Cl likely originated as acidic species from volcanic out-gassing and subsequently coalesced on dust and sand grain surfaces, possibly with an affinity towards Fe3+ sites. Importantly, given the mobility of S and Cl in aqueous exposures, soil samples maintaining the typical molar S/Cl ratio of ~3.7:1 indicate minimal interactions with liquid water after the addition of S and Cl. In contrast to this well-established baseline, soil samples have been discovered at all three landing sites with atypical S/Cl ratios (e.g., subsurface soils), indicative of a more complex aqueous history.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: JSC-E-DAA-TN70395 , International Conference on Mars; Jul 22, 2019 - Jul 25, 2019; Pasadena, CA; United States
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