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  • 1
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The pulmonary veins of albino Wistar rats were studied by means of light and electron microscopy. The media of larger veins consists of cardiac muscle fibers which extend until the vessels attain about 100 μ in diameter. This coat consists of external longitudinal fibers and internal circular fibers. The vasa vasorum are well developed and the capillaries show pseudofenestrations. The numerous adrenergic and cholinergic nerve endings do not form typical motor end-plates as seen in skeletal muscles. The ultrastructure of these media muscle fibers is similar to that of rat hearts. The smooth muscle layer of larger pulmonary veins is not continuous as it is in smaller veins where it forms cushions. Comparisons of albino rats and other rodents reveal striking differences.Action potential shape and propagation velocity (0.5-1.2 m/s) along the myocardial coat of the pulmonary vein were similar to those observed in the left atrium and so was their sensitivity to locally applied acetylcholine. The physiological direction of propagation in rat pulmonary veins is toward the lung. This finding lends support to the hypothesis of a rhythmic, valve-like action of the striated musculature of the pulmonary venous wall during the systole and a possible role in the capacitance of the pulmonary circulation.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Warming of exponentially growing T. pyriformis to 34°C results in severe inhibition of nucleotide pool formation. The utilization of the pool for stable RNA synthesis is poorly affected at the high temperature. It thus appears that the synthesis and processing of ribosomal RNA precursors are not primarily impaired at 34°C.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: proliferation ; large T antigen ; peripheral nervous system ; cytoskeleton ; microtubules ; myelination ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Schwann cells (SC), the myelinating cells of the peripheral nervous system, show a remarkable capacity to switch from a differentiated state to a proliferative state both during development and peripheral nerve regeneration. In order to better understand the regulatory mechanisms involved with this change we are studying a Schwann cell line transfected with the SV-40 large T gene (TSC). Serum-free medium combined with elevating intra-cellular cAMP levels produced a slower proliferating TSC whose morphology changed from pleiomorphic to process bearing, reminiscent of primary SC in culture. This change was abrogated by colcemid but was unaltered by cytochalasin D, indicating a major role for microtubules. Ultrastructural studies demonstrated numerous microtubules in the cellular extensions which correlated with strong immunocytochemical staining for tubulin in the processes. Analysis of cytoskeletal fractions from the treated cells revealed a greater proportion of tubulin in the polymerized state compared with untreated cells which closely resembled the distribution in primary SC. The cytoskeletal changes observed in the TSC as a result of elevating the intra-cellular cAMP levels may reflect the earliest cellular changes in the induction of myelination. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: microtubules ; nucleation ; mitosis ; nocodazole ; immunocytochemistry ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The reassembly of microtubules is described in mitotic cells after release from nocodazole-induced block. The formation of microtubules was followed by light microscopic immunocytochemical staining using the PAP method, combined with to-luidine blue staining of the chromatin. The light microscopic observations on whole cells were compared with ultrastructural observations on thin sections. This step is essential to ascertain complete destruction of microtubules during the nocodazole treatment and to correlate immunocytochemical staining with the presence of microtubules.Removal of nocodazole (10 or 1 μg/ml) after a sufficiently long incubation to induce a complete disappearance of microtubules resulted in the appearance of tubulin staining specifically associated with the centromeres and with one or two isolated points in the cytoplasm. Electron microscopy confirmed that the staining was due to the massive accumulation of small microtubules at the kinetochores and centrosomes. Kinetochore nucleation was seen only in association with condensed metaphase-stage chromosomes and not with the less-condensed prophase chromosomes.In a second type of experiment cells were allowed to enter mitosis in the presence of an incompletely active concentration of nocodazole (0.1 μg/ml). The construction of the mitotic spindle was arrested; however, short microtubules were assembled at the kinetochores and centrosomes.These experiments demonstrate that in living mitotic PTK2 cells the kinetochores, as well as the centrosomes, exert a nucleating action on tubulin assembly.The further elongation of microtubules after removal of nocodazole was seen to occur preferentially along axes between the centrosomes and the kinetochores. This resulted in the construction of normal metaphases that evolved through anaphase and telophase. We have attempted to formulate a hypothesis that may explain the oriented assembly that seems to be essential in the construction of the spindle.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0741-0581
    Keywords: F1 mitochondrial ATPase ; Immunocytochemistry ; Mouse heart muscle cells ; Protein A-gold complexes ; Electron spectroscopic imaging (ESI) ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Notes: Immunocytochemistry was used to investigate the localization of F1 ATPase in mitochondria of cryosections of adult mouse heart muscle cells. The initial aldehyde fixation was the only denaturation step for antigens. The fine structure was preserved with contrast enhancement as the sections were maintained hydrated, with the advantage that the entire procedure is completed in one working day. The reaction was highly specific, and entire mitochondria were labeled with the Protein A-gold complex. A new analytical technique, electron spectroscopic imaging (ESI), contributed to a better visualization of the localization of the F1 factor.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1040-452X
    Keywords: Chick embryos ; Organogenesis ; δ-crystallin gene ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Extracellular signals are likely to be involved in the control of growth and differentiation during embyrogenesis of vertebrates. These signals include, among others, several members of the insulin family: insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, IGF-II, and insulin. In the chick embryo, maternal IGF-I is stored in the yolk. In addition, the embryonic IGF-I gene is expressed very early and in late development in multiple tissues. We have used reverse-transcribed (RT) RNA and amplification by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect IGF-I gene expression. IGF-I was preferentially expressed in cephalic regions during late neurulation and early organogenesis. During late organogenesis, in some tissues, such as the eye lens, IGF-I gene expression is compartmentalized to a subset of cells, the epithelial cells. In these lens cells, IGF-I stimulates transcription of the δ-crystallin gene. Competence to respond to IGF-I exists in multiple cell types, since, based on binding studies, receptors for IGF-I are widespread in the gastrulating and neurulating embryo. Target tissues in which an autocrine/paracrine role for IGF-I appears more likely are the developing eye lens and retina, which are avascular organs rich in IGF-I receptors. In late development, IGF-I may have an additional endocrine role, with an impact on the general growth of the chick embryo. In embryos developed ex ovo, that show growth retardation after day 10 of embyrogenesis, IGF-I serum levels are very low. By day 8, expression of IGF-I mRNA in these embryos is markedly reduced in multiple tissues. Future studies in which IGF-I and its receptor are overexpressed or abolished should clarify the function of this growth factor in development. © 1993 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Quantitative lateral and dorsoventral cineradiography shows that the masticatory movements of the mandible, condyles, tongue, and hyoid of Pteropus giganteus (Chiroptera) move along highly regular paths that are characteristic for each of the three food types tested.Mandibular movements are predominantly orthal, although a small forward translation occurs early in opening and small lateral deflections occur in both opening and closing phases. These deflections are related to the existence of active (bolus bearing) and balancing sides of the jaws, chewing being not truly bilateral. The deflections are associated with a shift of both condyles toward one side. In consequence the active condyle is located in a lateral part of the associated fossa, the inactive condyle in a medial part. Food transfer from side to side involves a reversal of the chewing direction during opening. Such reversals are especially frequent near the end of a chewing sequence.The fore, middle, and hind parts of the tongue differ in their movement patterns. Movements of the fore part, and to a lesser extent of the middle part, follow the open-close movements of the lower jaw. The hind part of the tongue moves predominantly dorsally during slow closing and ventrally during fast opening and fast closing. All three parts move forward during slow closing and slow opening, and backward during fast opening and fast closing. Movements of the hyoid are closely synchronized with those of the hind part of the tongue. Furthermore, tongue and hyoid movements are synchronized with jaw movements. All cycles of Pteropus giganteus are transport cycles, and the synchrony appears to reflect the consistency of the food (soft pulp, juices). Food consistency also accounts for the high swallowing rate and the absence of any significant difference between nonswallowing and swallowing cycles.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 196 (1988), S. 73-106 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Mastication has been studied by cinematography and quantitative electromyography while flying foxes, Pteropus giganteus, were freely feeding on standardized pieces of apple, soaked raisin, and banana.The primarily orthal mandibular movements are caused by mainly bilaterally symmetrical firing of all the masticatory muscles. Asymmetric activity in the superficial and deep masseter and medial pterygoid causes slight protrusion early in opening. Slight lateral deviations at the end of opening and at the start of closing are caused by asymmetric and asynchronous activity in the pterygoids and digastrics, and by asynchronous firing of the deep temporalis and zygomaticomandibularis. Food consistency affects movement characteristics as well as characteristics of muscular activity.In this study electromyograms were digitized and the number of spikes and mean amplitude per interval (set by the filming rate) recorded. Although a significant correlation exists between these descriptors, the product thereof appears to be the best predictor of certain kinematic variables (cycle length and maximum excursion of the mandible). On the other hand, the changes in magnitude of muscular activity as a function of the position of a cycle in the reduction sequence and as a function of food consistency are more translated in a variation of the mean amplitude than in a variation of the number of spikes per interval. Observed variation differs among muscles studied. It is most apparent in the superficial and deep masseter and least in the temporalis and zygomaticomandibularis.Late cycles of apple and raisin mastication are long and exhibit large gapes but almost no anterior movement. The adductor activity frequently shows a synchronized, pulsatile pattern leading to an unfused tetanus.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Pancreatic ducts of young posthatching Rana temporaria tadpoles are the main component of the developing pancreas. At this stage (free-swimming tadpoles with internal gills), duct cells display a high degree of development of basal and lateral outfoldings of the cell membrane with extensive interdigitation, and numerous mitochondria are present throughout the cytoplasm. Wide intercellular spaces also exist, sometimes forming canaliculi-like structures. Since these traits are characteristic of cells engaged in osmotic regulation, we suggest the possibility that this temporary duct system participates in such control. Duct cells in tadpoles with well-developed hindlegs have diminished interdigitation, and mitochondria are localized apically. © 1993 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: nuclear bodies ; PML ; confocal microscopy ; image restoration ; RNA ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: The PML protein is a human growth suppressor concentrated in 10 to 20 nuclear bodies per nucleus (PML bodies). Disruption of the PML gene has been shown to be related to acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL). To obtain information about the function of PML bodies we have investigated the 3D-distribution of PML bodies in the nucleus of T24 cells and compared it with the spatial distribution of a variety of other nuclear components, using fluorescence dual-labeling immunocytochemistry and confocal microscopy. Results show that PML bodies are not enriched in nascent RNA, the splicing component U2-snRNP, or transcription factors (glucocorticoid receptor, TFIIH, and E2F). These results show that PML bodies are not prominent sites of RNA synthesis or RNA splicing. We found that a large fraction of PML bodies (50 to 80%) is closely associated with DNA replication domains during exclusively middle-late S-phase. Furthermore, in most cells that we analysed we found at least one PML body was tightly associated with a coiled body. In the APL cell line NB4, the PML gene is fused with the RARα gene due to a chromosomal rearrangement. PML bodies have disappeared and the PML antigen, i.e., PML and the PML-RAR fusion protein, is dispersed in a punctated pattern throughout the nucleoplasm. We showed that in NB4 cells the sites that are rich in PML antigen significantly colocalize with sites at which nascent RNA accumulates. This suggests that, in contrast to non-APL cells, in NB4 cells the PML antigen is associated with sites of transcription. The implications of these findings for the function of PML bodies are consistent with the idea that PML bodies are associated with specific genomic loci. © 1996 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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