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  • 1
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Tumor promoting phorbol esters, such as 12-0-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA), stimulate colony formation in vitro by murine granulocyte-macrophage progenitors (GM-CFC) without added colony stimulating factors (CSF). To determine whether TPA induces CSF production in vitro, marrow cells were cultured for 1 to 7 days in liquid medium with or without TPA. No CSF was detected in any sample by a double antibody radioimmunoassay (sensitivity = 2 units/0.1 ml), however, colony-stimulating activity was detected in supernatant fluid from all TPA containing cultures by bioassay. This activity appeared to result from a direct effect of TPA rather than from production of CSF, as equivalent activity was found in TPA-containing medium incubated in the absence of marrow cells. Rabbit antiserum to purified L-cell CSF inhibited colony formation stimulated by L-cell CSF and WEHI-3 CSF, but had no effect on colony formation induced by TPA. Cells from long-term marrow cultures responded to TPA with colony formation, despite culture conditions and cell fractionation procedures that reduced the frequency of CSF-proclucing macrophages to 〉 1.0%. TPA inhibited binding of radioiodinated L-cell CSF to marrow cells, especially if the cells were first exposeed to TPA. These results do not support induction of CSF production as the major mechanism of phorbol ester stimulation of myelopoiesis. Phorbol esters may directly stimulate GM-CFC and/or enhance their response to CSF by a mechanism involving CSF binding sites.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Several murine marrow stromal cells were established from murine bone marrow cultures. Stromal cell lines transfected with a tumor-inducing polyoma virus middle T antigen (MTAg) were inoculated into nude mice subcutaneously. KUSA-MTAg cells, one of these cell lines, led to the rapid local development of bone marrow consisting of trilineage hemantopoietic cells and bone; other cell lines produced spindle cell sarcoma or hemangiosarcoma. These results suggested that a single stromal cell line, KUSA-MTAg cells, may induce hematopoietic stem cells or early progenitors of three lineages of hematopoietic cells in vivo. Interestingly, untransfected KUSA cells expressed three new mesenchymal phenotypes, osteocytes, adipocytes, and myotubes, after treatment with 5-azacytidine. © 1992 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The adherent stromal layer in long-term bone marrow cultures (LTBMC) provides the cellular environment necessary for the in vitro proliferation and differentiation of pluripotential hematopoietic stem cells. The role of humoral hematopoietic growth factors, colony-stimulating factors (CSF) in the regulation of hematopoietic cell production in this system is poorly understood. We have recently isolated and cloned an adherent cell line, D2XRII, derived from murine LTBMC. Plateau phase 25 cm2 cultures of 2 × 106 D2XRII cells in 8.0 ml produced CSF-1 (M-CSF) at around 100-150 units/0.1 ml medium. Following X-irradiation there was a dose-dependent decrease in the production of CSF-1 to a plateau of 50% of control levels at 10,000 rad. Higher doses did not produce a further decrease. The X-ray dose reducing CSF-1 production to 50% was 100-fold above the lethal dose as measured by clonagenic survival following trypsinization and replating. Trypsinized replated viable adherent but nondividing X-irradiated D2XRII cells were maintained for up to 8 weeks after irradiation and demonstrated continuous production of CSF-1. The data indicate significant divergence of two biologic effects of X-irradiation on plateau-phase marrow stromal cells: physiologic function of adherence and CSF-1 production, versus proliferative integrity. This divergence of effects may be very relevant to understanding the mechanism of X-irradiation-associated marrow suppression and leukemogenesis.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Previous studies have shown no detectable colony-stimulating factor (CSF) in media harvested from long-term bone marrow cultures. In the present experiments supernatants from long-term cultures established in three laboratories were assayed for CSF by colony assay and by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Most samples were devoid of biologic activity but all contained CSF as judged by RIA. Biologic activity was found in the majority of samples after diafiltration to remove low molecular weight inhibitors or 5-fold concentration by ultrafiltration. Samples that remained inactive in the colony assay were subjected to gel filtration on Sephadex G-150 to remove potential high molecular weight inhibitors. Biologic activity remained lower than that by RIA in two of three samples tested. Thus, most long-term cultures appear to contain biologically active CSF but this activity is masked by various types of inhibitors. In addition some media appear to contain material that is only detected by RIA.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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