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  • 1
    ISSN: 0197-8462
    Keywords: liquid crystal thermometry ; microwave heating ; cells ; hyperthermia ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Occupational Health and Environmental Toxicology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Physics
    Notes: A nonperturbing technique of thin-layer liquid crystal thermometry was developed to quantitate heating of Chinese hamster ovary cells and the bacterium Serratia marcescens when exposed to 2450-MHz microwave fields at 0.2-0.5 W/cm2. Cells suspended in culture medium were injected into 5-cm glass microcapillary tubes coated on the inside with a thin layer of liquid crystal. The tubes were sealed and placed parallel to the electric field in a watertight waveguide exposure chamber where they were heated by circulating temperature-controlled water. Even at high circulation rates, liquid crystal color changes indicated local microwave capillary tube heating of 0.1-0.25 °C. Precision of measurement was 0.02 °C. Observations during microwave heating were significantly different from observations without microwaves at the 1% level, and heating increased as circulating water flow was reduced from 300 ml/s to 100 ml/s. The results of a cell survival assay following hyperthermal treatment were in good agreement with expectations based on the observations of microwave heating using liquid crystals.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Alkaline phosphatase is induced in cultured human choriocarcinoma cells by three inhibitors of DNA synthesis which alter DNA structure: 1-β-D-arabinofuranosyl-cytosine, mitomycin C, and phleomycin. No induction is observed with the inhibitors, hydroxyurea and thymidine, which do not alter DNA structure. Cyclic AMP, analogs of cyclic nucleotides, and sodium butyrate also induce alkaline phosphatase in these cells. Among the cyclic nucleotides tested, dibutyryl cyclic AMP is the best inducer, whereas dibutyryl cyclic GMP is a poor inducer.Induction of alkaline phosphatase by inhibitors of DNA synthesis or by exposure to dibutyryl cyclic AMP appears to utilize different mechanisms. Maximum induction is observed after simultaneous addition of both types of inducers at the concentrations found to be optimal for each inducer alone. Under these conditions, the induced activity is equal to or greater than the sum of the activities induced by each inducer. RNA synthesis and protein synthesis are required for induction.Dibutyryl cyclic AMP added to cultures of choriocarcinoma cells is not degraded in the culture medium, but is extensively degraded in the cells. Nevertheless, significant amounts of dibutyryl and monobutyryl cyclic AMP are found intracellularly throughout the experiment. Since the cellular uptake of dibutyryl cyclic AMP is extremely slow, the amount of butyrate released by intracellular degradation cannot account for the observed induction. Neither the rate of uptake nor the stability of dibutyryl cyclic AMP are changed by the addition of 1-β-D-arabinofuranosyl-cytosine to the culture medium. Furthermore, 1-β-D-arabinofuranosyl-cytosine inhibits the induction by sodium butyrate. The results indicate that butyrate is not the major mediator of induction by dibutyryl cyclic AMP.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Maximal rates of superoxide (O-2) release, and the cytochemical locales of peroxide staining in resident, elicited, and activated macrophages have been determined. Macrophages elicited into the peritoneum with either casein (1.2% w/v) or proteose-peptone (10.0% w/v) release about twice as much O-2 as macrophages activated by infection of the animals with either Listeria monocytogenes, or Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) followed by immune boosting with Purified Protein Derivative (PPD) (i.e., about 35 vs. 14-18 nmol O-2/min/107 cells). Macrophages elicited with thioglycollate (3.0% w/v) and resident macrophages produce negligible amounts of O-2 upon stimulation with PMA. These data are compared with those reported by other investigators who used different procedures. A cytochemical procedure for localizing peroxide has been modified for use with murine macrophages. No production of H2O2 by macrophages is detected cytochemically in the absence of stimulation. Upon exposure to PMA, resident macrophages are still largely unresponsive. Approximately 20% of the casein elicited macrophages and BCG-PPD activated macrophages exhibit H2O2 staining, which is largely restricted to the cytoplasmic vesicles and channels induced by PMA in these cells. The only exception to this staining pattern is a small population (about 2%) of activated macrophages which exhibits H2O2 staining in the cytoplasmic vesicles and channels and on the plasmalemma as well.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: We have compared the subcellular sites of H2O2 and presumably also superoxide-(O2-) production, and certain aspects of metabolic responses (O2 consumption, O2- production) of stimulated neutrophils from human blood and those elicited into guinea pig peritonea. Stimulation was accomplished with either opsonized zymosan or phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA). Striking quantitative differences were observed between these cell types with regard to the increased respiration and O2- production observed during stimulation. These differences were most apparent when opsonized zymosan served as the stimulating agent. They were minimized when the soluble stimulating agent, PMA, was used. With either stimulus, the subcellular sites of H2O2 production were the same for both types of neutrophils, i.e., the plasmalemma and phagosomal membranes. No H2O2 production could be detected cytochemically in the absence of stimulation.Treatment of both unstimulated human blood and elicited guinea pig peritoneal neutrophils with the nonpenetrating, covalently linking reagent, p-diazobenzenesulfonic acid, failed to diminish O2- production upon subsequent stimulation, in contrast to a previous report. These data are discussed in terms of the possible cytological arrangements of the respiratory enzyme(s), and the different modes of stimulation of neutrophil metabolism by various agents. Ancillary data on elicited mouse peritoneal neutrophils are presented.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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