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  • 1
    ISSN: 0197-8462
    Keywords: millimeter-wave radiation ; BHK-21/C13 cells in monolayer culture ; scanning electron microscopy ; transmission electron microscopy ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Occupational Health and Environmental Toxicology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Physics
    Notes: Both thermal and athermal effects of millimeter-wave radiation on BHK-21/C13 cells were sought using scanning and transmission electron microscopy in conjunction with an in vitro technique that allows direct exposure of monolayer cultures to high average power densities. Culture dishes were irradiated by placing them on the open end of an E- or U-band wave guide. This technique exposes different regions of the cell monolayer lying along the longer axis of the wave guide aperture to varying power densities ranging from zero at each edge to twice the average power density at the center.Cell ultrastructure was unaffected by microwave radiation for 1 hour (41.8 or 74.0 GHz, average power densitites = 320 or 450 mW/cm2, respectively) with or without cooling by rapid recirculation of the culture medium. Temperature in recirculated cultures was held at 37.2 °C, and that in noncooled cultures never exceeded 42 °C during irradiation at either power density. In contrast, cell morphology was affected by microwave exposure whenever irradiation conditions were altered so that the temperature of the monolayer reached or exceeded 44.5 °C. Ultrastructural alterations included breakage of cell processes, progressive detachment of cells from the substrate, increased clumping of heterochromatin in the nuclei, and the appearance of large empty vesicles in the cytoplasm. Such morphological changes resulted from either application of higher average power densities or irradiation at the power densities described above at a higher ambient temperature (〉38.5°C).
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: In this study, the intracellular concentrations of six elements (mmole/kg dry weight) were directly measured in the muscle fibers of pectoralis major muscles of eight week old, genetically dystrophic and normal chickens by the X-ray microanalysis technique. The extent of muscle degeneration was evaluated by morphometric measurements of muscle fiber diameter and other histological changes. A significant increase in the concentration of intracellular sodium and chlorine was evident in dystrophic muscles. The concentration of intracellular sodium was 127.0 ± 35.0 in the muscle fibers of dystrophic chicks compared to 65.7 ± 16.5 in normal controls. The concentration of chlorine was 90.5 ± 27.5 and 54.1 ± 5.5 in the muscle fibers of dystrophic and normal chicks respectively. The intracellular concentrations of potassium, magnesium, phosphorous, and sulfur remained unchanged in the dystrophic condition. Morphometric studies revealed that the dystrophic pectoralis muscles contain fewer but thicker fibers per unit area compared to normal pectoralis muscles. The importance of these findings are discussed in relation to the results of earlier investigations.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: Single-cell proteins ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; fragile mutants ; srb1 ; lysis ; polyploids ; protein extracts ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: A series of prototrophic fragile strains of different ploidy (2n, 3n and 4n) has been genetically constructed on the basis ofhalopoid srb1 containing segregants of the fragile Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant VY 1160. The strains have been characterized by several criteria. In regard to generation time, biomass yield, and nucleic acids content of the cells, the tetraploid srb1 homozygous hybrid is indistinguishable from an industrial strain of S. cerevisiae. However, it is characterized by a higher protein content. Unlikely any other laboratory or industrial strains, the original mutant and these hybrids possess an ability for lysis upon suspension in hypotonic solutions. The dependence of the percentge of lysed cells on the growth phase and concentration of osmotic stabilizer in the medium has been investigated. The quantity of proteins in the soluble fractions obtained after lysis of these strains by osmotic shock has been determined. These hybrids can be considered as a potential industrial source of potentials for nutritional purposes.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1040-452X
    Keywords: Embryonic stem cells ; Cell differentiation ; Pluripotency ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Ten embryonic stem (ES) cell lines from mink blastocysts were isolated and characterized. All the lines had a normal diploid karyotype; of the ten lines studied, five had the XX and five had the XY constitution. Testing of the pluripotency of the ES-like cells demonstrated that (1) among four lines of genotype XX, an X was late-replicating in three; both Xs were active in about one-third of cells of line MES8, and analysis of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase revealed no dosage compensation for the X-linked gene; (2) when cultured in suspension, the majority of lines were capable of forming “simple” embryoid bodies (EB), and two only showed the capacity for forming “cystic” multilayer EBs. However, formation of ectoderm or foci of yolk sac hematopoiesis, a feature of mouse ES ceils, was not observed in the “cystic” EB; (3) when cultured as a monolayer without feeder, the ES cells differentiated into either vimentin-positive fibroblast-like cells or cytokeratin-positive epithelial-like cells (less frequently); neural cells appeared in two lines; (4) when injected into athymic mice, only one of the four tested lines gave rise to tumors. These were fibrosarcomas composed of fibrobalst-like cells, with an admixture of smooth muscular elements and stray islets of epithelial tissue; (5) when the ES cells of line MES1 were injected into 102 blastocyst cavities and subsequently transplanted into foster mathers, we obtained 30 offspring. Analysis of the biochemical markers and coat color did not demonstrate the presence of chimaeras among offspring. Thus the cell lines derived from mink blastocysts are true ES cells. However, their pluripotential capacities are restricted. © 1992 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: tumor metastasis ; gene expression ; oncogenes ; virus antigens ; glycoproteins ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: A metastatic variant cell subline of the Abelson virus-transformed murine large lymphoma/lymphosarcoma RAW 117 has been selected in vivo ten times for liver colonization. Highly metastatic subline RAW117-H10 forms greater than 200 times as many gross surface liver tumor nodules as the parental line RAW117-P. Analysis of cellular proteins and glycoproteins indicates reduced expression of murine Moloney leukemia virus-associated p15, p30, and gp70, and increased expression of a sialoglycoprotein, gp150, in the highly metastatic H10 cells. Northern analyses of oncogene expression suggested that mRNA of various oncogenes was expressed equally or not expressed in the RAW117 cells of differing metastatic potential. Differential gene expression was examined using a cDNA library of 17,600 clones established from poly A+ mRNA isolated from H10 cells. The cDNA library was screened by the colony hybridization technique using probes made from both RAW117-P and -H10 cells. Approximately 99.5% of these cDNA clones were expressed identically in P and H10 cells. Of the few differentially expressed cDNA clones (approx. 150/17,600), one-half of these were identified as Moloney leukemia virus sequences in a separate probing with a radiolabeled Moloney leukemia virus probe. The remainder of the differentially expressed mRNA detected by colony hybridization of the cDNA library were expressed at higher levels (approx. 1/6) or lower levels (approx. 1/3) in the highly metastatic H10 cells.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: T cells ; aging ; IL-2 ; IL-4 ; IFNγ ; CD45RB ; 3G11 ; 6C10 ; CD44 ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Splenocytes from young adult or old C57BL/6NNia mice were stimulated in vitro with the anti-CD3∊ mAb, 145-2C11, in either soluble (2C11s) or plate-bound (2C11i) form. In the young group, each mode of cell activation resulted in peak DNA synthesis at ∼48 h of culture; at this time point, the old group exhibited response levels to 2C11s or 2C11i that were ∼40% of those in the young group. However, in the presence of 2C11i, splenocytes from old donors showed a delayed peak response which approached the peak levels attained in the young group. To analyze the responsiveness of the CD4+ T cell subpopulation, this cell type was isolated from spleens of young or old mice and was stimulated in vitro with 2C11s or 2C11i, in the presence or absence of added accessory cells (T cell-depleted, irradiated splenocytes). The induction of DNA synthesis by 2C11s was accessory cell dependent, and the response in the old group were markedly reduced in comparison to those in the young group. In contrast, stimulation of DNA synthesis with 2C11i was relatively accessory cell independent, resulted in higher response levels in both age groups, and lessened the disparity between age groups. The analysis of IL-2 and IL-4 secretion by stimulated CD4+ cells revealed that, in response to 2C11s and accessory cells, only IL-2 accumulation was detectable and the levels in the young group were ∼10-fold higher than the IL-2 levels in the old group. However, stimulation of CD4+ cells with 2C11i and accessory cells yielded improved IL-2 production and a detectable IL-4 response in the old group, whereas the young group exhibited a response profile similar to that induced by 2C11s. Further analysis of the IL-2, IL-4, and IFNγ mRNA levels in 2C11i-stimulated CD4+ cells revealed that old donor cells accumulated similar levels of IL-2 transcripts, but higher levels of IL-4 and IFNγ transcripts, than young donor CD4+ cells. Finally, we analyzed splenic CD4+ cells for membrane expression of four molecules - 3G11, 6C10, CD45RB, and CD44 - thought to demarcate CD4+ cell subsets with restricted patterns of cytokine production. The CD4+ cell fraction of individual mice contained higher percentages of cell phenotypes associated with increased IL-4:IL-2 production ratios (i.e., 3G11lo, CD45RBlo) and with increased IFNγ synthesis (i.e., CD44hi). Taken together, these data show marked alterations in the CD4+ cell subset composition in old mice, detected at the levels of subset marker expression and profiles of cytokine production. Moreover, conclusions regarding CD4+ cell competency in old donors can differ depending on the choices of stimuli and readouts for cell function in the experimental design. Therefore, age-related differences in T cell reactivity in vitro may be partially explained by the shifts in the representation of individual CD4+ subsets, each with potentially unique activation requirements and functional attributes.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: osteocalcin ; transcriptional regulation ; homeodomain protein ; Msx ; bone-specific ; OC box ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Bone-specific expression of the osteocalcin gene is transcriptionally controlled. Deletion analysis of osteocalcin promoter sequences by transient transfection of osseous (ROS 17/2.8) and nonosseous (R2 fibroblast) cells revealed that the most proximal 108 nucleotides are sufficient to confer tissue-specific expression. By gel mobility shift assays with wild-type and mutated oligonucleotides and nuclear extracts from several different cell lines we identified a novel transcription factor complex which exhibits sequence-specific interactions with the primary transcriptional element, the OC box (nt -99 to -76). This OC box binding protein (OCBP) is present only in osteoblast-like cells. Methylation interference demonstrated association of the factor with OC box sequences overlapping the Msx homeodomain consensus binding site. By assaying several mutations of the OC box, both in gel shift and transient transfection studies using ROS 17/2.8, we show the following. First, binding of OCBP correlates with osteocalcin promoter activity in ROS 17/2.8 cells. Increased binding leads to a 2-3-fold increase in transcription, while decreased binding results in transcription 30-40% of control. Second, homeodomain protein binding suppresses transcription. However, Msx expression is critical for full development of the bone phenotype as determined by antisense studies. Last, we show that one of the mutations of the OC box permits expression of osteocalcin in non-osseous cell lines. In summary, we demonstrate association of at least two classes of tissue-restricted transcription factors with the OC box element, the OCBP and Msx proteins, supporting the concept that these sequences contribute to defining tissue specificity. © 1996 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: epitope mapping ; monoclonal antibodies ; linear epitope ; immuno-dominant ; immuno-recessive ; ELISA ; competitive ELISA ; recombinant GST-PSP94 ; N-terminal and C-terminal peptides ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: PSP94 has shown potential to be a serum biomarker for evaluating prostate cancer. Studies of the epitope structure is crucial for this endeavour. In this article, we have used 15 different monoclonal antibodies (MAb) to analyse the epitope structure of PSP94 and to compare with the results obtained from our previous work using polyclonal antibody and recombinant PSP94. Firstly, we determined the relative activities of the 15 MAb population by direct and competitive ELISA. The two predominant MAbs (MAb PSP-6 and -19) in 15 MAbs were selected for further studies of the epitope structure. By comparing the binding activities of recombinant GST-PSP94 and natural PSP94 with MAbs, and by comparing their affinity with MAbs in an in vitro denaturing experiment, PSP94 was shown to have a similar, prevalently linear epitope structure as we demonstrated by polyclonal antibody. Using recombinant GST fusion protein with PSP94 and with each half of the N- and C-terminal 47 amino acids (GST-PSP-N47/C47) in E. coli cells, the different epitopes recognized by 15 monoclonal antibodies were delineated and the polar distribution of the epitope structure of PSP94 was characterized. Results of direct ELISA of recombinant N47 and C47 and their competitive binding against natural PSP94 (competitive ELISA) showed that the N- and C-termini represent the immuno-dominant and immuno-recessive area separately. A majority of the monoclonal antibodies (12/15) showed preferential binding of the N-terminal sequence of the PSP94 protein. Using GST-PSP-N47 as a standard protein, an epitope map of the 15 monoclonal antibodies was obtained. The results of this study will help to define the clinical utility of PSP94. J. Cell. Biochem. 65:186-197. © 1997 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: oxidant stress ; nucleotides ; glutathione ; catalase ; redox state ; energy charge ; reactive oxygen species ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Features of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma (AIDS-KS), such as the multifocal presentation at mucosal and epidermal sites subjected to trauma, suggest that AIDS-KS is initially a reactive hyperplasia that subsequently progresses to a neoplasia. It is recognized that there is an association between sustained states and the subsequent development of neoplasia (e.g., ulcerative colitis/colonic adenocarcinoma). Furthermore, patients who develop AIDS-KS experience both a constant immune stimulation due to sustained high levelsof virus-induced cytokines and, because of a sparing effect on their phagoctic cells, retention of the phagocytic inflammatory response. A component of phygocytic activation is the initiation of the oxidative brust, resulting in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can be mutagenic to host cells if released beyond the phagolysosome and not inactivated. Our results demonstrate that cultured AIDS-KS cells possess drcreased cytoprotective capabilities. Relativeto either dermal fibroblasts, or human microvascular endothelial cells (HMECs), AIDS-KS cells contained significantly lower levels of glutathione, a tripeptide integral in both cytoprotection and maintenance of cellular thiol status. While HMECs increased catalase activity during culture in the cytokine-rich KS milieu (control medium supplement with conditioned medium from MOT, an TLV II-infected cell line), AIDS-KS cells demonstrated reduced catalase function under these conditions. Furthermore, HMEC cultures showed in inherent biochemical responsiveness, by increasing catalase activity following exposure to exaogenous H2(O2). In contrast, the catalase activity of AIDS-KS cells decreased following (H2O2) challenge. Our results show that an inherent deficiency in cellular cytoprotection is present in AIDS-KS cells and suggest that oxidant stress may function in the development and progression AIDS-KS.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1040-452X
    Keywords: Marsupial ; Sperm head ; Chromatin ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The organization of sperm chromatin in the dasyurid marsupial, Sminthopsis crassicaudata, was investigated using various morphological techniques. Transmission electron microscopy indicates two quite distinct chromatin regions became evident late in spermiogenesis with an outer globular region containing blocks of very electron-dense chromatin. Fluorescent light microscopical studies after staining with DNA dyes and 7-amino actinomycin D of testicular, caput, and cauda epididymal spermatozoa showed that this region fluoresced less brightly than the rest of the nucleus, indicating the presence of fewer DNA binding sites. Freeze fracture showed that the chromatin in most of the nucleus had randomly arranged particles of various sizes, but that of the outer region was composed entirely of small particles. This outer region was more resistant to low concentrations of the ionic detergent, SDS, whereas both guanidine hydrochloride and urea together with sodium chloride generally dispersed all the chromatin except that in the outer globular region and in a localized area of the nucleus beneath the acrosome. This study has thus revealed that the outer globular chromatin of these spermatozoa responds differently to ionic detergents and protein denaturing agents and has a different chromatin organization than most of the rest of the nucleus. The significance of these differences remains, however, to be determined. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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