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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Euphytica 110 (1999), S. 175-180 
    ISSN: 1573-5060
    Keywords: barley ; Hordeum vulgare ; Pyrenophora teres
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract A half-diallel was made between five six-rowed Nordic spring barleys to study the genetics of resistance to net blotch. Twenty-five doubled-haploid (DH) lines from each cross and the parents were sown in hill plots in Finland in 1997 and 1998. The plots were artificially inoculated with Pyrenophora teres Drechs. f. teres Smedeg. and assessed for resistance to net blotch. There were statistically significant differences in resistance of the five parents to net blotch. General combining ability (GCA) of the parents and specific combining ability (SCA) effects in the progeny were statistically significant in both years, but GCA effects predominated. Evidence for additive epistasis was minimal. Progeny of a particular cross were less resistant to net blotch than the better parent. The most resistant progeny were derived from the cross between the two most resistant parents, Pohto and WW7977, and resistance was governed by at least eleven effective factors. Narrow sense heritability estimates for resistance to net blotch were high during both years (0.84–0.99). It appears that net blotch resistance of progeny from crosses can be largely predicted from reactions of the parents. Quantitative resistance to net blotch can be further advanced by identification and incorporation of superior parents, from a screening such as reported here, into a recurrent selection breeding programme.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-5060
    Keywords: barley ; scald ; Rhynchosporium secalis ; resistance ; Hordeum vulgare
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary Twenty Finnish isolates of Rhynchosporium secalis (Oud.) J.J. Davis, the causal agent of scald, were taken from infected barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) plants and inoculated on to seedlings of a differential series of barley containing a range of major genes for resistance to the fungus, as well as on to six Nordic 6-row spring barleys and three winter ryes (Secale cereale L.). These fungal isolates derived from four sites and three host varieties. Disease development was monitored on two leaves of seedlings in the greenhouse employing a standard scale, and on adult plants in the field by assessing the diseased area on the three uppermost leaves. A comparison was also made between the pathogenicity and virulence of ten Finnish and ten Canadian R. secalis isolates. The Finnish isolates varied in virulence, but with the exception of Algerian (CI 1179) seedlings and adult La Mesita (CI 7565) all seedlings and adult plants of the entire differential series were resistant to all isolates. Canadian isolates were, on average, less virulent than Finnish isolates. All the Nordic checks were susceptible to all Finnish and seven Canadian isolates, but differences in the degree of susceptibility were evident. Isolates of R. secalis from barley were non-pathogenic on rye, isolates from Elymus repens L. were non-pathogenic on barley and rye, and isolates from rye were only pathogenic on rye. Finnish R. secalis isolates contain no redundant pathogenic diversity. The differential series represents a useful, but as yet untapped, source of resistance to R. secalis for Finnish barley breeders.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Euphytica 94 (1997), S. 201-208 
    ISSN: 1573-5060
    Keywords: barley ; net blotch ; Pyrenophora teres ; quantitative resistance ; Hordeum vulgare
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Resistance to Pyrenophora teres Drechs. f. teres Smedeg., the net blotch pathogen, was studied in six 6-row Nordic spring barleys (Hordeum vulgare L.) in the field and in the greenhouse. The barley genotypes were: Arve, Agneta, Artturi, H6221, Pohto and WW7977. Disease progress was monitored in the field (1994 and 1995) in small artificially infected plots, sown at commercial seeding rates, and in infected hill plots (1994). Areas under the disease progress curves (AUDPC) and apparent infection rates (r) were calculated for the uppermost 3 or 4 leaves. Terminal severities (TS) were also recorded. Infection response of seedlings to a range of P. teres isolates was assessed in the greenhouse using a standard scale. In small plots in the field, Arve and Agneta were very susceptible to P. teres infection, as indicated by large values for AUDPC and TS. H6221 and WW7977 were highly resistant, while Artturi and Pohto were moderately resistant. In hill plots the situation was similar, except that Artturi and Pohto appeared less resistant than in the small plots. The relatively greater resistance of H6221 and WW7977 was reflected in seedling infection responses. According to the results of these experiments, H6221 and WW7977 possess adequate levels of quantitative resistance to P. teres to make them useful parents in future crossing programs aimed at improving net blotch resistance in Finnish spring barleys.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0197-8462
    Keywords: liquid crystal thermometry ; microwave heating ; cells ; hyperthermia ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Occupational Health and Environmental Toxicology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Physics
    Notes: A nonperturbing technique of thin-layer liquid crystal thermometry was developed to quantitate heating of Chinese hamster ovary cells and the bacterium Serratia marcescens when exposed to 2450-MHz microwave fields at 0.2-0.5 W/cm2. Cells suspended in culture medium were injected into 5-cm glass microcapillary tubes coated on the inside with a thin layer of liquid crystal. The tubes were sealed and placed parallel to the electric field in a watertight waveguide exposure chamber where they were heated by circulating temperature-controlled water. Even at high circulation rates, liquid crystal color changes indicated local microwave capillary tube heating of 0.1-0.25 °C. Precision of measurement was 0.02 °C. Observations during microwave heating were significantly different from observations without microwaves at the 1% level, and heating increased as circulating water flow was reduced from 300 ml/s to 100 ml/s. The results of a cell survival assay following hyperthermal treatment were in good agreement with expectations based on the observations of microwave heating using liquid crystals.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-5060
    Keywords: Russian wheat aphid ; Diuraphis noxia ; barley ; resistance
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary The inheritance of resistance to Russian wheat aphid Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko), in two resistant barleys, Hordeum vulgare L., ASE/2CM//B76BB and ‘Gloria/Come’, was studied in the field and in the greenhouse. The resistant genotypes were crossed with susceptible genotypes ‘Esperanza’ and ‘Shyri’. Resistance reactions of F1, BC1, and F2 plants, and individual F2 plant derived F3 families indicated that resistance in each genotype was controlled by the same single dominant gene.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Euphytica 92 (1996), S. 81-87 
    ISSN: 1573-5060
    Keywords: barley ; net blotch ; Pyrenophora teres ; resistance ; Hordeum vulgare
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary Seedlings of a differential barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) series (21 genotypes) and of six check genotypes were used in the greenhouse to assess variation in virulence among 20 single-spore isolates of the net blotch pathogen. Pyrenophora teres Drechs. f.teres Smedeg., collected from various sites in Finland. The experiment was run twice and symptom expression was recorded on the first three leaves. Analysis of second leaf symptom scores from Run 1 indicated differences in virulence between isolates, all of which were pathogenic, and differential resistance among the barleys. The virulence of P. teres isolates appeared to be conditioned by the host barley from which the isolate derived; the average virulence of isolates collected from a susceptible host was greater than that of isolates collected from a less susceptible host. Results from Run 2 were similar regarding resistance within the barleys, but variation in virulence among the P. teres isolates was not consistent with that from Run 1. CI 9819 caries duplicate genes for resistance to P. teres (Rpt1b and Rpt1c), and CI 7548 possesses Rpt3d. Both genotypes were highly resistant to all isolates. The Rpt1a gene of Tifang (CI4407) conferred resistance to all isolates in Run 2, but only to about half of the isolates in Run 1. The checks, including two of the symptomatically most resistant Nordic barley genotypes, were universally susceptible during these stringent tests. No selective pressure has been placed on Finnish isolates of P. teres through previous deployment of major resistance genes, and it is speculated that any variation in virulence among isolates is likely to be due to a combination of evolutionary forces including, natural selection, random genetic drift and gene flow.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Alkaline phosphatase is induced in cultured human choriocarcinoma cells by three inhibitors of DNA synthesis which alter DNA structure: 1-β-D-arabinofuranosyl-cytosine, mitomycin C, and phleomycin. No induction is observed with the inhibitors, hydroxyurea and thymidine, which do not alter DNA structure. Cyclic AMP, analogs of cyclic nucleotides, and sodium butyrate also induce alkaline phosphatase in these cells. Among the cyclic nucleotides tested, dibutyryl cyclic AMP is the best inducer, whereas dibutyryl cyclic GMP is a poor inducer.Induction of alkaline phosphatase by inhibitors of DNA synthesis or by exposure to dibutyryl cyclic AMP appears to utilize different mechanisms. Maximum induction is observed after simultaneous addition of both types of inducers at the concentrations found to be optimal for each inducer alone. Under these conditions, the induced activity is equal to or greater than the sum of the activities induced by each inducer. RNA synthesis and protein synthesis are required for induction.Dibutyryl cyclic AMP added to cultures of choriocarcinoma cells is not degraded in the culture medium, but is extensively degraded in the cells. Nevertheless, significant amounts of dibutyryl and monobutyryl cyclic AMP are found intracellularly throughout the experiment. Since the cellular uptake of dibutyryl cyclic AMP is extremely slow, the amount of butyrate released by intracellular degradation cannot account for the observed induction. Neither the rate of uptake nor the stability of dibutyryl cyclic AMP are changed by the addition of 1-β-D-arabinofuranosyl-cytosine to the culture medium. Furthermore, 1-β-D-arabinofuranosyl-cytosine inhibits the induction by sodium butyrate. The results indicate that butyrate is not the major mediator of induction by dibutyryl cyclic AMP.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Maximal rates of superoxide (O-2) release, and the cytochemical locales of peroxide staining in resident, elicited, and activated macrophages have been determined. Macrophages elicited into the peritoneum with either casein (1.2% w/v) or proteose-peptone (10.0% w/v) release about twice as much O-2 as macrophages activated by infection of the animals with either Listeria monocytogenes, or Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) followed by immune boosting with Purified Protein Derivative (PPD) (i.e., about 35 vs. 14-18 nmol O-2/min/107 cells). Macrophages elicited with thioglycollate (3.0% w/v) and resident macrophages produce negligible amounts of O-2 upon stimulation with PMA. These data are compared with those reported by other investigators who used different procedures. A cytochemical procedure for localizing peroxide has been modified for use with murine macrophages. No production of H2O2 by macrophages is detected cytochemically in the absence of stimulation. Upon exposure to PMA, resident macrophages are still largely unresponsive. Approximately 20% of the casein elicited macrophages and BCG-PPD activated macrophages exhibit H2O2 staining, which is largely restricted to the cytoplasmic vesicles and channels induced by PMA in these cells. The only exception to this staining pattern is a small population (about 2%) of activated macrophages which exhibits H2O2 staining in the cytoplasmic vesicles and channels and on the plasmalemma as well.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: We have compared the subcellular sites of H2O2 and presumably also superoxide-(O2-) production, and certain aspects of metabolic responses (O2 consumption, O2- production) of stimulated neutrophils from human blood and those elicited into guinea pig peritonea. Stimulation was accomplished with either opsonized zymosan or phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA). Striking quantitative differences were observed between these cell types with regard to the increased respiration and O2- production observed during stimulation. These differences were most apparent when opsonized zymosan served as the stimulating agent. They were minimized when the soluble stimulating agent, PMA, was used. With either stimulus, the subcellular sites of H2O2 production were the same for both types of neutrophils, i.e., the plasmalemma and phagosomal membranes. No H2O2 production could be detected cytochemically in the absence of stimulation.Treatment of both unstimulated human blood and elicited guinea pig peritoneal neutrophils with the nonpenetrating, covalently linking reagent, p-diazobenzenesulfonic acid, failed to diminish O2- production upon subsequent stimulation, in contrast to a previous report. These data are discussed in terms of the possible cytological arrangements of the respiratory enzyme(s), and the different modes of stimulation of neutrophil metabolism by various agents. Ancillary data on elicited mouse peritoneal neutrophils are presented.
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