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  • 1
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: dolichol-PP-GlcNAc2 ; translocation ; endoplasmic reticulum ; alg1 ; exoglucanase ; S. cerevisiae ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Transfer of truncated oligosaccharides to yeast exoglucanase (Exg) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae alg1 has been investigated. When incubated at the non-permissive temperature, alg1 cells secreted into the culture medium, in addition to the exoglucanase glycoforms secreted by wild type, underglycosylated forms as well as material with ionic properties of the non-glycosylated enzyme. As expected, none of the latter had affinity towards concanavalin A, but part of it bound to wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), suggesting that it contained, in addition to non-glycosylated Exg, glycoforms carrying non-reducing terminal GlcNAc. Only the WGA-bound material could be labelled with galactosyltransferase; furthermore, the label could be released by treatment with peptide-N4-N-acetyl-β-glucosamine asparagine amidase. These results unambiguously demonstrate that GlcNAc2 can be transferred from dolichol-PP-GlcNAc2 to one or both sequons of yeast Exg. Accordingly, they support previous observations suggesting that this early intermediate is able to translocate in vivo in order to make its sugar portion accessible to the oligosaccharyltransferase in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0025-116X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Äthylen-Propylen Copolymere, die mit spezifisch syndiotaktischen Katalysatoren dargestellt werden, enthalten sowohl Kopf-Schwanz als auch Schwanz-Kopf orientierte Propyleneinheiten. Daher ist diese Copolymerisation eigentlich eine Terpolymerisation und die einfache Propylenpolymerisation eine binäre Copolymerisation.Die sich daraus für die Kinetik der Polymerisation und Copolymerisation ergebenden Konsequenzen werden untersucht.
    Notes: Ethylene-propylene copolymers prepared with syndiotactic specific catalysts contain both head-to-tail and tail-to-head oriented propylene units. Consequently, this copolymerization is, actually, a terpolymerization, and the propylene polymerization is a binary copolymerization.The consequences of this fact on the kinetics of polymerization and copolymerization are considered.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0025-116X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: In order to elucidate the relations between morphological habits, thermal behaviour and chemical structure of polymers, aliphatic polyesters with variable amount of trans-double bonds along the backbone chain were crystallized from dilute solutions in 1-propanol and 1-butanol. The crystals were studied with electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and wide angle X-ray diffraction. The morphology of solution grown single crystals and some thermodynamic quantities such as the equilibrium dissolution and melting temperature and the enthalpy and entropy of fusion are influenced by the percentage of unsaturated comonomer. The thermal behaviour and the X-ray diffraction of these crystals suggest that saturated and unsaturated repeating units are able to cocrystallize.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0025-116X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: In the present paper we have investigated the role that the presence of trans double bonds plays on the glass transition temperature of linear polyesters. Experimental data indicate that the glass transition temperature is increased by an increase of the unsaturation concentration. The effect is not drastic but it is well detectable. This result is discussed taking into account the chain microstructure and the bulk structure effects.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0025-116X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The dynamic mechanical behaviour of polyamide systems containing different degrees of unsaturation was analyzed. The results do not show any simple relation between unsaturation and mechanical response. Particular attention was given to the α-transition, that is a glass transition, and experimental data suggest that the generally accepted mechanism for this transition requires a more extensive study.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0025-116X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The dynamic mechanical relaxations of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), poly(1,4-cyclo-hexylenedimethylene terephthalate) (PCHDMT), and a copolymer of them (COP) were measured in the temperature range from -150 to 150°C by use of a dynamic viscoelastometer. The viscoelastic relaxations of COP are studied and compared with those of PET and PCHDMT. The anisotropy of the viscoelastic properties of stretched COP samples was also studied in order to distinguish between main and secondary relaxations.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: In the light of accumulating data that implicate cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) with a role in cell interactions with extracellular matrix molecules such as fibronectin, we have compared the properties of these molecules in wild-type BHK cells and an adhesion-defective ricin-resistant mutant (RicR14). Our results showed that the mutant, unlike BHK cells, cannot form focal adhesions when adherent to planar substrates in the presence of serum. Furthermore, while both cell lines possess similar amounts of cell surface HSPG with hydrophobic properties, that of RicR14 cells had decreased sulfation, reduced affinity for fibronectin and decreased half-life on the cell surface when compared to the normal counterpart. Our conclusions based on this data are that these altered properties may, in part, account for the adhesion defect in the ricin-resistant mutant. Whether this results from the known alteration in assembly of N-linked glycans affecting the carbohydrate chains on the proteoglycan or some other combination of factors is discussed.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: We investigated the ultrastructural localization of annexin V a Ca2+-dependent phospholipid- and membrane-binding protein in the nervous system, heart, and skeletal muscles. The results indicate that in the cerebellum the protein is restricted to glial cells, where it is found diffusely in the cytoplasm as well as associated with plasma membranes. Bergmann glial cell bodies and processes and astrocytes in the cerebellar cortex and oligodendrocytes in the cerebellar white matter displayed an intense immune reaction product. In sciatic nerves, the protein was exclusively found in Schwann cells with a subcellular localization similar to that seen in glial cells in the cerebellum. Pituicytes in the neurohypophysis were intensely immunostained, whereas axons were not. In the heart, annexin V was restricted to the sarcolemma, transverse tubules, and intercalated discs. In skeletal muscles the protein was localized to the sarcolemma and transverse tubules. No evidence for the presence of the protein in the sarcoplasm or in association with mitochondria, the sarcoplasmic reticulum, or contractile elements was obtained. The observation that plasma membranes in cells expressing annexin V have the protein associated with them is in agreement with previous data on Ca2+-dependent binding of the protein to brain and heart membranes, and on existence of both EGTA- and Triton X-100-extractable and resistant fractions of annexin V in these membranes. The present data support the hypothesis that annexin V might be involved in membrane trafficking and suggest a role for this protein in the regulation of cytoplasmic activities in glial cells. © 1992 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The role of intracellular pH (pHin) in the regulation of cell growth in both normal and transformed cells is a topic of considerable controversy. In an effort to study this relationship NIH 3T3 cells were stably transfected with the gene for the yeast H+-ATPase, constitutively elevating their pHin. The resulting cell line, RN1a, has a transformed phenotype: The cells are serum independent for growth, clone in soft agar, and form tumors in nude mice. In the present study, we further characterize this system in order to understand how transfection with this proton pump leads to serum-independent growth, using defined media to investigate the effects of specific growth factors on the transfected and parental NIH 3T3 cells. While both cell lines show similar growth increases in response to platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB and epidermal growth factor (EGF), they respond differently to insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and PDGF-AA. RN1a cells exhibit increased growth at nanomolar concentrations of insulin but the parental cells had only a relatively minor response to insulin at 10 μM. Both cell lines showed some response to IGF-I in the nanomolar range but the response of RN1a cells was much larger. Differences in insulin and IGF-I receptor number alone could not explain these results. The two cell lines also respond differently to PDGF-AA. RN1a cells are relatively insensitive to stimulation by PDGF-AA and express fewer PDGF α receptors as shown by Northern blots and receptor-binding studies. We propose a unifying hypothesis in which the H+-ATPase activates a downstream element in the PDGF-AA signal transduction pathway that complements insulin and IGF-I signals, while leading to downregulation of the PDGF α receptor. © 1994 wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0025-116X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Additional Material: 2 Tab.
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