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  • Life Sciences (General)  (14)
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: No abstract available
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: Biulleten' eksperimental'noi biologii i meditsiny (ISSN 0365-9615); Volume 119; 3; 288-90
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The present report describes a desktop computer-based method for the quantitative assessment of the area occupied by immunoreactive terminals in close apposition to nerve cells in relation to the perimeter of the cell soma. This method is based on Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) routines incorporated in NIH-Image public domain software. Pyramidal cells of layer V of the somatosensory cortex outlined by GABA immunolabeled terminals were chosen for our analysis. A Leitz Diaplan light microscope was employed for the visualization of the sections. A Sierra Scientific Model 4030 CCD camera was used to capture the images into a Macintosh Centris 650 computer. After preprocessing, filtering was performed on the power spectrum in the frequency domain produced by the FFT operation. An inverse FFT with filter procedure was employed to restore the images to the spatial domain. Pasting of the original image to the transformed one using a Boolean logic operation called 'AND'ing produced an image with the terminals enhanced. This procedure allowed the creation of a binary image using a well-defined threshold of 128. Thus, the terminal area appears in black against a white background. This methodology provides an objective means of measurement of area by counting the total number of pixels occupied by immunoreactive terminals in light microscopic sections in which the difficulties of labeling intensity, size, shape and numerical density of terminals are avoided.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: Journal of neuroscience methods (ISSN 0165-0270); Volume 74; 1; 89-96
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is an 84-amino-acid polypeptide hormone functioning as a major mediator of bone remodeling and as an essential regulator of calcium homeostasis. PTH and PTH-related protein (PTHrP) indirectly activate osteoclasts resulting in increased bone resorption. During this process, PTH changes the phenotype of the osteoblast from a cell involved in bone formation to one directing bone resorption. In addition to these catabolic effects, PTH has been demonstrated to be an anabolic factor in skeletal tissue and in vitro. As a result, PTH has potential medical application to the treatment of osteoporosis, since intermittent administration of PTH stimulates bone formation. Activation of osteoblasts by PTH results in expression of genes important for the degradation of the extracellular matrix, production of growth factors, and stimulation and recruitment of osteoclasts. The ability of PTH to drive changes in gene expression is dependent upon activation of transcription factors such as the activator protein-1 family, RUNX2, and cAMP response element binding protein (CREB). Much of the regulation of these processes by PTH is protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent. However, while PKA is linked to many of the changes in gene expression directed by PTH, PKA activation has been shown to inhibit mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and proliferation of osteoblasts. It is now known that stimulation of MAPK and proliferation by PTH at low concentrations is protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent in both osteoblastic and kidney cells. Furthermore, PTH has been demonstrated to regulate components of the cell cycle. However, whether this regulation requires PKC and/or extracellular signal-regulated kinases or whether PTH is able to stimulate other components of the cell cycle is unknown. It is possible that stimulation of this signaling pathway by PTH mediates a unique pattern of gene expression resulting in proliferation in osteoblastic and kidney cells; however, specific examples of this are still unknown. This review will focus on what is known about PTH-mediated cell signaling, and discuss the established or putative PTH-regulated pattern of gene expression in osteoblastic cells following treatment with catabolic (high) or anabolic (low) concentrations of the hormone.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: Gene (ISSN 0378-1119); Volume 282; 1-2; 1-17
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The effects of spaceflight upon the "slow" muscle adductor longus were examined in rats flown in the Soviet Biosatellite COSMOS 2044. The techniques employed included standard methods for light microscopy, neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy. Light microscopic observations revealed myofiber atrophy and segmental necrosis accompanied by cellular infiltrates composed of macrophages, leukocytes and mononuclear cells. Neural cell adhesion molecule immunoreactivity (N-CAM-IR) was seen on the myofiber surface and in regenerating myofibers. Ultrastructural alterations included Z band streaming, disorganization of myofibrillar architecture, sarcoplasmic degradation, extensive segmental necrosis with apparent preservation of the basement membrane, degenerative phenomena of the capillary endothelium and cellular invasion of necrotic areas. Regenerating myofibers were identified by the presence of increased amounts of ribosomal aggregates and chains of polyribosomes associated with myofilaments. The principal electron microscopic changes of the neuromuscular junctions showed axon terminals with a decrease or absence of synaptic vesicles replaced by microtubules and neurofilaments, degeneration of axon terminals, vacant axonal spaces and changes suggestive of axonal sprouting. The present observations suggest that alterations such as myofibrillar disruption and necrosis, muscle regeneration and denervation and synaptic remodeling at the level of the neuromuscular junction may take place during spaceflight.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: Journal of neuropathology and experimental neurology (ISSN 0022-3069); Volume 51; 4; 415-31
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: An episode of nonsustained ventricular tachycardia was recorded from a crew member during the second month aboard the MIR space station. Although asymptomatic, this cardiac event increases the concern that serious cardiac dysrhythmias may be a limiting factor during long-duration spaceflight.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: The American journal of cardiology (ISSN 0002-9149); Volume 81; 11; 1391-2
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: An axial extensometer able to measure global bone strain magnitudes and rates encountered during physiological activity, and suitable for use in vivo in human subjects, is described. The extensometer uses paired capacitive sensors mounted to intraosseus pins and allows measurement of strain due to bending in the plane of the extensometer as well as uniaxial compression or tension. Data are presented for validation of the device against a surface-mounted strain gage in an acrylic specimen under dynamic four-point bending, with square wave and sinusoidal loading inputs up to 1500 mu epsilon and 20 Hz, representative of physiological strain magnitudes and frequencies. Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) between extensometer and strain gage ranged from 0.960 to 0.999. Mean differences between extensometer and strain gage ranged up to 15.3 mu epsilon. Errors in the extensometer output were directly proportional to the degree of bending that occurs in the specimen, however, these errors were predictable and less than 1 mu epsilon for the loading regime studied. The device is capable of tracking strain rates in excess of 90,000 mu epsilon/s.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: Journal of biomechanics (ISSN 0021-9290); Volume 34; 3; 385-91
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Intravenous injections of the indirect sympathetic amine, tyramine, are used as a test of peripheral adrenergic function. The authors measured the time course of increases in ejection fraction, heart rate, systolic and diastolic pressure, popliteal artery flow, and greater saphenous vein diameter before and after an injection of 4.0 mg/m(2) body surface area of tyramine in normal human subjects. The tyramine caused moderate, significant increases in systolic pressure and significant decreases in total peripheral resistance. The earliest changes were a 30% increase in ejection fraction and a 16% increase in systolic pressure, followed by a 60% increase in popliteal artery flow and a later 11% increase in greater saphenous vein diameter. There were no changes in diastolic pressure or heart rate. These results suggest that pressor responses during tyramine injections are primarily due to an inotropic response that increases cardiac output and pressure and causes a reflex decrease in vascular resistance. Thus, tyramine pressor tests are a measure of cardiac, but not vascular, sympathetic function.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: Journal of cardiovascular pharmacology (ISSN 0160-2446); Volume 41; 1; 126-31
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: No abstract available
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: The American journal of cardiology (ISSN 0002-9149); Volume 91; 4; 494-7
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Collagenase-3 mRNA is initially detectable when osteoblasts cease proliferation, increasing during differentiation and mineralization. We showed that this developmental expression is due to an increase in collagenase-3 gene transcription. Mutation of either the activator protein-1 or the runt domain binding site decreased collagenase-3 promoter activity, demonstrating that these sites are responsible for collagenase-3 gene transcription. The activator protein-1 and runt domain binding sites bind members of the activator protein-1 and core-binding factor family of transcription factors, respectively. We identified core-binding factor a1 binding to the runt domain binding site and JunD in addition to a Fos-related antigen binding to the activator protein-1 site. Overexpression of both c-Fos and c-Jun in osteoblasts or core-binding factor a1 increased collagenase-3 promoter activity. Furthermore, overexpression of c-Fos, c-Jun, and core-binding factor a1 synergistically increased collagenase-3 promoter activity. Mutation of either the activator protein-1 or the runt domain binding site resulted in the inability of c-Fos and c-Jun or core-binding factor a1 to increase collagenase-3 promoter activity, suggesting that there is cooperative interaction between the sites and the proteins. Overexpression of Fra-2 and JunD repressed core-binding factor a1-induced collagenase-3 promoter activity. Our results suggest that members of the activator protein-1 and core-binding factor families, binding to the activator protein-1 and runt domain binding sites are responsible for the developmental regulation of collagenase-3 gene expression in osteoblasts.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: The Journal of biological chemistry (ISSN 0021-9258); 275; 30; 23310-8
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of spaceflight duration on immune cells and their relationship to catecholamine levels. METHODS: Eleven astronauts who flew aboard five different US Space Shuttle flights ranging in duration from 4 to 16 days were studied before launch and after landing. RESULTS: Consistent with prior studies, spaceflight was associated with a significant increase in the number of circulating white blood cells (p 〈.01), including neutrophils (p 〈.01), monocytes (p 〈.05), CD3+CD4+ T-helper cells (p 〈.05), and CD19+ B cells (p 〈.01). In contrast, the number of CD3-CD16+56+ natural killer cells was decreased (p 〈.01). Plasma norepinephrine levels were increased at landing (p 〈.01) and were significantly correlated with the number of white blood cells (p 〈.01), neutrophils (p 〈.01), monocytes (p 〈.01), and B cells (p 〈.01). Astronauts who were in space for approximately 1 week showed a significantly larger increase on landing in plasma norepinephrine (p =.02) and epinephrine (p =.03) levels, as well as number of circulating CD3+CD4+ T-helper cells (p 〈.05) and CD3+CD8+ T-cytotoxic cells (p 〈.05) as compared with astronauts in space for approximately 2 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest that the stress of spaceflight and landing may lead to a sympathetic nervous system-mediated redistribution of circulating leukocytes, an effect potentially attenuated after longer missions.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: Psychosomatic medicine (ISSN 0033-3174); 63; 6; 886-90
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