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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2006-01-11
    Description: Using an electron scanning microscope and a high voltage microscope, a study was made of the radiation damage and structure of micron sized grains and grains separated from the 200-mesh fraction of the L-16-19 surface material sample. Then the structural features were compared with those found by studying with the same techniques grains separated from 20 different samples of lunar dust taken from the Apollo 11, Apollo 12, Apollo 14, and Apollo 15 collections. The L-16-19 sample is similar to the most intensely irradiated samples returned to earth by Apollo craft.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar Soil from the Sea of Fertility (NASA-TT-F-15881); p 404-409
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: A new type of meteoritic material, intermediate in size between meteorites and interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), is described. Melting and filtering of about 100 tons of blue ice near Cap Prudhomme, Antarctica, yielded 7500 or more irregular, friable particles and about 1500 melted spherules, about 100 microns in size, both showing a 'chondritic' composition suggestive of an extraterrestrial origin. Analyzed irregular particles appear to be unmelted and have similarities with the fine-grained matrix of primitive carbonaceous chondrites, but are extremely diverse in composition. Isotopic analysis of trapped neon confirms an extraterrestrial origin for 16 of 47 irregular particles and 2 of 19 spherules studied and strongly suggests that they were exposed in space as micrometeoroids. These large Antarctic micrometeorites constitute a new family, or at least a new population, of solar system objects, in a mass range corresponding to the bulk of extraterrestrial material accreted by the earth today.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Nature (ISSN 0028-0836); 351; 44-47
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2006-01-11
    Description: Samples returned to earth by Luna 16, were studied with a high voltage electron microscope for ultramicroscopic features. The following amazing features were noted in particles of surface material returned in all the lunar trips: A very high density of tracks of nuclear particles, ultrathin amorphous shells, highly rounded forms, and amazingly good ordering of crystal lattice. These features were used along with calibration experiments in solving the following problems: (1) determining the energy spectrum and chemical abundances of the very heavy nuclei in the solar wind and in the solar cosmic rays; (2) studying the past activity of the sun; (3) obtaining data on lunar dynamic processes affecting dust particles; (4) analyzing composite effects caused by penetration of solar wind into the lunar surface material; and (5) establishing the existence of the ancient lunar atmosphere and magnetic field.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar Soil from the Sea of Fertility (NASA-TT-F-15881); p 388-399
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2005-02-24
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Res. in the Space Sci., Vol. 2, No. 1; 3 p
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence spectra of unpolished iron and chondritic spheres extracted from sediments collected on the melt zone of the Greenland ice cap allow the analysis of Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ge, Pb, and Se with minimum detection limits on the order of several parts per million. All detected elements are depleted relative to chondritic abundance with the exception of Pb, which shows enrichments up to a factor of 500. An apparent anticorrelation between the Ni-content and trace element concentration was observed in both types of spherules. The fractionation patterns of the iron and chondritic spheres are not complementary and consequently the two iron spheres examined in this study are unlikely to result from ejection of globules of Fe/Ni from parent chondritic micrometeoroids.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 92; E649-E65
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: A concentration process occurring in the melt zone of the Greenland ice cap has produced the richest known deposit of cosmic dust on the surface of the earth. Extraterrestrial particles collected from this region are well preserved and are collectable in large quantities. The collected particles are generally identical to cosmic spheres found on the ocean floor, but a pure glass type was discovered that has not been seen in deep-sea samples. Iron-rich spheres are conspicuously rare in the collected material.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Science (ISSN 0036-8075); 233; 869-872
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Trajectories giving the individual depth variations of lunar dust grains with time are randomly generated by a Monte Carlo code, where the variables are the mass and speed distribution of meteorites at the lunar surface and the geometrical shape of impact craters. A statistical analysis of a great number of such trajectories is then used to define the 'average' depth history of lunar dust grains for two grain radii: 1 and 50 microns. This yields: (1) estimates for time constants involved during the dynamic evolution of the regolith, (2) a model for the layering of the regolith, and (3) a better understanding of the basic dust-grain mechanisms responsible for the formation of the most mature lunar soil samples. The validity of various soil models proposed for the dynamic evolution of the regolith is discussed in terms of experimental constraints on the models.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar Science Conference; Mar 17, 1975 - Mar 21, 1975; Houston, TX
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Simulation experiments, computations, and analysis of glassy agglutinates show that a directly condensed lunar wind vapor phase is strongly depleted in carbon and sulfur compounds and may recrystallize rapidly in the lunar thermal cycle and separate from host crystals. Factors preventing identification of low-energy species implanted from the lunar atmosphere are discussed. Computational results indicate that the implanted lunar winds carbon originates both from the vapor phases injected into the lunar atmosphere during thermal metamorphism of mature lunar soil grains and from direct volatization of impacting micrometeorites. It is suggested that microglass splashes and tiny crystalline grains possibly attached to the surface of coarser grains do not affect the characteristics of solar wind carbon chemistry in the lunar soil.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar Science Conference; Mar 18, 1974 - Mar 22, 1974; Houston, TX
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: A Monte-Carlo soil mixing computer code was used to evaluate isotopic effects induced by galactic cosmic rays in samples on the top surface of the lunar regolith and in lunar core tubes. For surface samples, good agreement was found between theoretical predictions of Ne-21 concentrations, neutron fluences, and Xe-131/Xe-126 ratios, and the corresponding observations.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar Science Conference; Mar 15, 1976 - Mar 19, 1976; Houston, TX
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Detailed predictions concerning the depth and time-dependent accumulation of solar-wind effects and solar-flare tracks in lunar dust grains were obtained by use of an adaptation of a Monte Carlo soil-mixing computer code described by Duraud et al. (1975). The predictions are compared to experimental measurements obtained by analyzing lunar dust grains as well as artificially irradiated minerals by a variety of techniques. A study of amorphous coatings of solar-wind radiation-damaged material on certain lunar grains sets limits on the integrated residence time of these grains in the ancient solar wind. Other topics discussed include solar wind maturation, the peculiar shape of the experimental distribution of central track densities in 50-micron grains, and the interpretation of both track gradients in 50-micron feldspars and the relatively 'low' concentration of solar-wind species implanted in ilmenite grains.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar Science Conference; Mar 17, 1975 - Mar 21, 1975; Houston, TX
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