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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: We recently obtained photoclinometric profiles across all simple grabens and erosional landforms (e.g., troughs, pits, wall-valley heads, and scarps that are bounded above and below by flat surfaces) that occur within Tempe Terra. These data, together with similar data that we obtained for Syria, Sinai, and Lunae Plana and the Alba Patera region, allow regional examination of shallow crust Al discontinuities between latitude 30 deg. S and 50 deg. N and longitude 50 deg. W and 112 deg. W. The profile for each simple graben was used with an appropriate structural model to estimate the depth to the base of the faulted layer. The depths of erosional wall scarps may also indicate the depths of mechanical discontinuities such as a local lithologic or cryospheric boundary. Examination of these data indicates a surprisingly consistent set of shallow crust Al discontinuities for the Tharsis region at depths of 0.4-0.6 km, 1.0-1.4 km, and 2 km; the maximum depth of the features in most study areas appears to be about 4 km. The concentration of values between 0.4 and 0.6 km in most scarp and some faulted-layer depth data is similar to the range in estimated thicknesses of individual exposed Noachian and Hesperian plains units in the Tharsis region. The regional depth data also show two modes near 1 and 2 km in some study areas and a maximum depth near 4 km in most study areas; the faulted-layer depths in excess of 4 km at Alba Patera occur near the summit of the caldera and could be attributed to volcanic loading. Our detailed examination of these depth data includes the following observations: (1) The mode at 1.0-1.4 km depth transcends age and geologic setting in this broad study area; (2) The 2-km mode is most obvious at Alba Patera and moderately well developed at Syria and Sinai Plana, but it is muted at Tempe Terra, which is in the same latitude range as Alba Patera but older; and (3) The 2-km-depth mode is not present in all areas that have features of Amazonian age. We suggest two possible explanations for our observations in the Tharsis region.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 1: A-F; p 381-382
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The Tempe Terra province contains a variety of volcanic landforms that range in size from small vents (less than 10 km in diameter) to moderately sized volcanoes (150 km in diameter). The volcanoes are aligned along the dominant northerly and northeasterly trends of the faults in this region, and many of the volcanoes occur on grabens. Some workers have speculated on the nature of some of the volcanoes on the basis of their general morphology, shadow measurement height, lateral dimension, and geologic setting. As part of a larger study, we have obtained detailed photoclinometric profiles across five of the more conspicuous small volcanoes in the Tempe Terra region. For these data, we extracted for each volcano its flank width and edifice height and the width and depth of its summit crater. We statistically compared these dimensions for each volcano with a set of average dimensions for each type of terrestrial volcanic feature listed in Pike and Clow (1981). These comparisons indicate that the morphometries of the Martian volcanoes 1, 2, and 3 most closely match Earth's cratered basaltic lava shields, and the morphometries of volcanoes 4 and 5 are similar to those of terrestrial basaltic tuff rings.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 1: A-F; p 379-380
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  • 3
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The 21st century is likely to see the start of the manned exploration and settlement of the inner solar system. NASA's plans for this endeavor are focused upon the Space Exploration Initiative which calls for a return to the Moon, to stay, followed by manned missions to Mars. To execute these missions safely provides solar physics with both a challenge and an opportunity. As the past solar maximum has clearly demonstrated, the Sun, through the solar flare process, is capable of generating and accelerating to high energies large fluxes of protons whose cumulative dose to unprotected astronauts can be fatal. It will be the responsibility of solar physicists to develop an accurate physical description of the mechanisms of flare energy storage and release, and of particle acceleration and propagation through interplanetary space upon which to base a sound method of flare and energetic particle prediction.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Advances in Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177); 14; 6; p. (6)33-(6)42
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Information is given on the composition and structure of the lunar crust. A lunar model is illustrated, indicating that it has essentially two layers, anorthositic mixed rocks overlaying a generally noritic crystalline basement. Implications relative to lunar evolution are discussed.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA, Washington, Reports of Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program, 1986; p 155-157
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A ternary-diagram approach is used to show on a single map as much detailed geochemical information concerning petrologic variations within the lunar crust as is possible. The classification map shows the global spatial distributions of end-member compositions, the transitional spatial relations between end-member compositions, and quantitative estimates of relative proportions of each end member at each pixel location within the orbital groundtracks. The use of elemental ratios in this analysis, instead of the commonly used elemental bivariate diagrams, shows geologic information that is otherwise hidden in individual elemental databases.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA, Washington, Reports of Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program, 1986; p 152-154
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Before large power systems for manned exploration of the Martian surface can be put into place, it must be determined how their performance will be affected by the Martian environment. A program was started to assess the impact of these environmental factors on power system performance, and to find ways to mitigate the degradative effects. The effects of blowing dust on photovoltaic (PV) and radiator surfaces is studied. Extensive use was made of the Martian Surface Wind Tunnel (MARSWIT) located at NASA-Ames to simulate Martian winds. Two basic types of experiment sets were run. In the first, the threshold clearing velocity of dust deposited on PV coverslip material and high emissivity radiator materials in clear Martian-like winds was examined. In the second, dust was dropped near the inlet of the wind tunnel and the winds were allowed to carry the dust past the samples, simulating a dust storm. A summary of results is given.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA. Ames Research Center, Sand and Dust on Mars; p 18-19
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  • 7
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Glacier like landforms are observed in the fretted terrain of Mars in the latitude belts near + or - 42 deg. It was suggested that sublimation or accumulation-ablation rates could be estimated for these glaciers if their shapes were known. To this end, photoclinometric profiles were obtained of a number of these landforms. On the basis of analyses of these profiles, it was concluded that ice is chiefly ablating from these landforms that either are inactive rock-glaciers or have materials within them that are moving exceedingly slowly at this time. These conclusions are consistent with other geologic information. The analyses were performed using a two-dimensional model of an isothermal glacier.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., MECA Symposium on Mars: Evolution of its Climate and Atmosphere; p 78-80
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Terrain studies of candidate landing sites for a future rover/sample-return mission to Mars are being conducted to evaluate the geologic and trafficability aspects of each site. An optimum site should have geologic units of widely diverse ages and chemical compositions occurring in close enough proximity and in smooth enough terrain so that a roving vehicle of limited traverse ability (+ or - 100 km) could collect representative samples. In FY 1986, geologic maps were compiled at 1:500,000 and 1:2 million scales of the Mangala Valles, Kasei Valles, Chasma Boreale (north polar), and Planum Australe (south polar) areas, and a study was begun of the topography and surface roughness characteristics of the Mangala Valles site. Geologic mapping has been greatly facilitated by specially enhanced, high-resolution Viking photographs, which clarify stratigraphic relations of units unrecognized earlier. Photoclinometric profiles of topographic features provide width and depth measurements of four classes of channels, the thickness of some volcanic units, and the throw on some faults. Estimates of the surface roughness of units are calculated using a newly developed USGS computer program and using measurements derived from Earth-based radar.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA, Washington, Reports of Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program, 1986; p 545-547
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The topographically high areas cut by Noctis Labyrinthus, Noctis Fossae, and Claritas Fossae were subjected to only minor resurfacing during and following local tectonic activity. Principal resurfacing materials consist of lava flows from Syria Planum and Tharsis Montes. Thus, these areas preserve much of the fault record produced by tectonism in this region. Although recent geologic maps of the area have been produced from Viking images, the only detailed fault histories available until now were described from Mariner 9 images. Much of the faulting in the Tharsis tectonic province was centered in Syria Planum; therefore, understanding the fault history in this region is critical to understanding the stress history and tectonism of Tharsis as a whole.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA, Washington, Reports of Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program, 1986; p 478-480
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The fundamental geological and geophysical properties of asteroids were studied by theoretical and simulation studies of their collisional evolution. Numerical simulations incorporating realistic physical models were developed to study the collisional evolution of hypothetical asteroid populations over the age of the solar system. Ideas and models are constrained by the observed distributions of sizes, shapes, and spin rates in the asteroid belt, by properties of Hirayama families, and by experimental studies of cratering and collisional phenomena. It is suggested that many asteroids are gravitationally-bound "rubble piles.' Those that rotate rapidly may have nonspherical quasi-equilibrium shapes, such as ellipsoids or binaries. Through comparison of models with astronomical data, physical properties of these asteroids (including bulk density) are determined, and physical processes that have operated in the solar system in primordial and subsequent epochs are studied.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-CR-169709 , NAS 1.26:169709
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