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  • LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION  (3,181)
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: We analyzed ropy glasses from Apollo 12 soils 12032 and 12033 by a variety of techniques including SEM/EDX, electron microprobe analysis, INAA, and Ar-39-Ar-40 age dating. The ropy glasses have potassium rare earth elements phosphorous (KREEP)-like compositions different from those of local Apollo 12 mare soils; it is likely that the ropy glasses are of exotic origin. Mixing calculations indicate that the ropy glasses formed from a liquid enriched in KREEP and that the ropy glass liquid also contained a significant amount of mare material. The presence of solar Ar and a trace of regolith-derived glass within the ropy glasses are evidence that the ropy glasses contain a small regolith component. Anorthosite and crystalline breccia (KREEP) clasts occur in some ropy glasses. We also found within these glasses clasts of felsite (fine-grained granitic fragments) very similar in texture and composition to the larger Apollo 12 felsites, which have a Ar-39-Ar-40 degassing age of 800 +/- 15 Ma. Measurements of 39-Ar-40-Ar in 12032 ropy glass indicate that it was degassed at the same time as the large felsite although the ropy glass was not completely degassed. The ropy glasses and felsites, therefore, probably came from the same source. Most early investigators suggested that the Apollo 12 ropy glasses were part of the ejecta deposited at the Apollo 12 site from the Copernicus impact. Our new data reinforce this model. If these ropy glasses are from Copernicus, they provide new clues to the nature of the target material at the Copernicus site, a part of the Moon that has not been sampled directly.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Meteoritics (ISSN 0026-1114); 29; 3; p. 323-333
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Saturn was observed in the vicinity of the J = 10 manifold of the pure rotational band of phosphine on 1984 July 10 and 12 from NASA's Kuiper Airborne Observatory with the facility far-infrared cooled grating spectrometer. On each night observations of the full disk plus rings were made at 4 to 6 discrete wavelengths which selectively sampled the manifold and the adjacent continuum. The previously reported detection of this manifold is confirmed. After subtraction of the flux due to the rings, the data are compared with disk-averaged models of Saturn. It is found that PH3 must be strongly depleted above the thermal inversion (approx. 70 mbar). The best fitting models consistent with other observational constraints indicate that PH3 is significantly depleted at even deeper atmospheric levels (or = 500 mbar), implying an eddy diffusion coefficient for Saturn of 10 to the 4 cm sq/sec.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Icarus (ISSN 0019-1035); 64; 549-556
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2011-08-16
    Description: Pioneer 11 observations of the interaction of Jupiter's magnetosphere with the distant solar wind have confirmed the earlier Pioneer 10 observations of the great size and extreme variability of the outer magnetosphere. The nature of the plasma transitions across Jupiter's bow shock and magnetopause as observed on Pioneer 10 have also been confirmed on Pioneer 11. However, the northward direction of the Pioneer 11 outbound trajectory and the distance of the final magnetopause crossing (80 Jupiter radii) now suggest that Jupiter's magnetosphere is extremely broad with a half-thickness (normal to the ecliptic plane in the noon meridian) which is comparable to or greater than the sunward distance to the nose.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Science; 188; May 2
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-08-17
    Description: The Ames Research Center Pioneer 11 plasma analyzer experiment provided measurements of the solar wind interaction with Saturn and the character of the plasma environment within Saturn's magnetosphere. It is shown that Saturn has a detached bow shock wave and magnetopause quite similar to those at earth and Jupiter. The scale size of the interaction region for Saturn is roughly one-third that at Jupiter, but Saturn's magnetosphere is equally responsive to changes in the solar wind dynamic pressure. Saturn's outer magnetosphere is inflated, as evidenced by the observation of large fluxes of corotating plasma. It is postulated that Saturn's magnetosphere may undergo a large expansion when the solar wind pressure is greatly diminished by the presence of Jupiter's extended magnetospheric tail when the two planets are approximately aligned along the same solar radial vector.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Science; 207; Jan. 25
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: The (Ar-39) (Ar-40) chronologies were determined for 14 different mesosiderites representing the full range of classification according to recrystallization, and these chronologies were compared with analogous data for other meteorite types and for lunar highland rocks. Results of Ar-Ar chronologies indicate the history of a degassing of Ar due to a major thermal event that occurred less than 3.9 Ga ago; this event is not the metal-silicate mixing event, which is known to have occurred earlier than 4.4 Ga ago. It is suggested that a major collisional disruption-reassembly event less than 3.9 Ga ago took place, leaving the metal-silicate breccias buried under tens of kilometers of rubble, where they cooled slowly through the Ar closure temperatures.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta (ISSN 0016-7037); 54; 2549-256
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Results are presented from an analysis of core samples obtained from different depths of the Chico (New Mexico) L6 chondrite for various cosmogenic nuclides (Be-10, Al-26, and stable isotopes of He, Ne, and Ar). The relationships between the measured abundances of cosmogenic nuclides and cosmogenic Ne-22/Ne-21 ratio were compared with predictions of recent semiempirical models of Graf et al. (1990) and Reedy (1991), and it was found that both models closely reproduce the observed trends and absolute values of the data obtained. Noble gas data indicate that Chico experienced shielding similar to that of Jilin and greater than those of the Knyahinya or the Keyes chondrites. The exposure history for Chico is discussed.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Meteoritics (ISSN 0026-1114); 27; 4; p. 371-381.
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2014-09-17
    Description: The detection of the J = 10 manifold of the pure rotational band of PH3 on Saturn is reported. The observations were made from the far-infrared cooled grating spectrometer. The wavelengths and observed brightness temperatures for the full disk plus rings are 89 + or - 3 K at 97.04 micrometer, 77 + or - 3 K at 102.72 micrometer, 77 + or - 3 K at 102.94 micrometer, and 83 + or - 3 K at 105.12 micrometers. The points of 97.04 and 105.12 micrometers establish the continuum level and the two points near 103 micrometers measure the depth of the PH3 manifold. After the flux due to the rings is subtracted, the depth of the feature is 16 + or - 6 K relative to the nearby 102 K continuum. These results are compared to theoretical models which parameterize the PH3 mixing ratio as x = x sub zero (P/P sub zero)(alpha) for P P sub zero and as x = x sub zero for P or = P, where P is the total pressure and alpha = H/h is the ratio of the dynamical scale height (H) and the scale height for decreasing the PH3 mixing ratio (h). The parameters x sub zero, P sub zero, and h were varied, as well as the H/He mixing ratio and the pressure-temperature profile. The data are well fitted using pressure-temperature profiles. The preferred values of h, P sub zero, and x sub zero imply that there is little or no PH3 above the thermal inversion and that the mixing ratio below the inversion is consistent with PH3 being 1 to 4 times overabundant relative to the solar P/H ratio.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Airborne Astron. Symp.; p 76-80
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: The flyby of Voyager 1 at Saturn resulted in the detection of a large variety of plasma waves, e.g., chorus, hiss, and electron cyclotron harmonics. Just before the outbound equator crossing, at about 6.1 R(sub s), the Voyager 1 plasma wave instrument detected a strong, well-defined low-frequency enhancement. Initially it was suggested that plasma waves might be responsible for the spectral feature but more recently dust was suggested as at least a partial contributor to the enhancement. In this report we present evidence which supports the conclusion that dust contributes to the low-frequency enhancement. A new method has been used to derive the dust impact rate. The method relies mainly on the 16-channel spectrum analyzer data. The few wide band waveform observations available (which have been used to study dust impacts during the Voyager 2 ring plane crossing) were useful for calibrating the impact rate from the spectrum analyzer data. The mass and, hence, the size of the dust particles were also obtained by analyzing the response of the plasma wave spectrum analyzer. The results show that the region sampled by Voyager 1 is populated by dust particles that have rms masses of up to few times 10(exp -11) g and sizes of up to a few microns. The dust particle number density is on the order of 10(exp -3) m(exp 3). The optical depth of the region sampled by the spacecraft is 1.04 x 10(exp -6). The particle population is centered about 2500 km south of the equatorial plane and has a north-south thickness of about 4000 km. Possible sources of these particles are the moons Enceladus and Tethys whose orbits lie within the E-ring radial extent. These results are in reasonable agreement with photometric studies and numerical simulations.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-CR-194694 , NAS 1.26:194694 , U-OF-IOWA-93-19
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: By mineral and bulk compositions, the Lewis Cliff (LEW) 88516 meteorite is quite similar to the ALHA77005 martian meteorite. These two meteorites are not paired because their mineral compositions are distinct, they were found 500 km apart in ice fields with different sources for meteorites, and their terrestrial residence ages are different. Minerals in LEW88516 include: olivine, pyroxenes (low- and high-Ca), and maskelynite (ater plagioclase); and the minor minerals chromite, whitlockite, ilmenite, and pyrrhotite. Mineral grains in LEW88516 range up to a few mm. Texturally, the meteorite is complex, with regions of olivine and chromite poikilitically enclosed in pyroxene, regions of interstitial basaltic texture, and glass-rich (shock) veinlets. Olivine compositions range from Fo(sub 64) to Fo(sub 70), (avg. Fo(sub 67)), more ferroan and with more variation than in ALHA77005 (Fo(sub 69) to Fo(sub 73)). Pyroxene compositions fall between En(sub 77)Wo(sub 4) and En(sub 65)Wo(sub 15) and in clusters near En(sub 63)Wo(sub 9) and En(sub 53)Wo(sub 33), on average more magnesian and with more variation than in ALHA77005. Shock features in LEW88516 range from weak deformation through complete melting. Bulk chemical analyses by modal recombination of electron microprobe analyses, instrumental neutron activation, and radiochemical neutron activation confirm that LEW88516 is more closely related to ALHA77005 than to other known martian meteorites. Key element abundance ratios are typical of martian meteorites, as is it nonchondritic rare earth pattern. Differences between the chemical compositions of LEW88516 and ALHA77005 are consistent with slight differences in the proportions of their constituent minerals and not from fundamental petrogenetic differences. Noble gas abundances in LEW88516, like those in ALHA77005, show modest excesses of Ar-40 and Xe-129 from trapped (shock-implanted) gas. As with other ALHA77005 and the shergottite martian meteorites (except EETA79001), noble gas isotope abundances in LEW88516 are consistent with exposure to cosmic rays for 2.5-3 Ma. The absence of substantial effects of shielding from cosmic rays suggest LEW88516 spent this time as an object no larger than a few cm in diameter.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Meteoritics (ISSN 0026-1114); 29; 5; p. 581-592
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Lunar granite 12033,576 is a subsample of the 'large' (approximately 1 g) felsite 12033,507 which was identified from a collection of 4-10 mm particles from the 12033 soil sampled from the north rim of Head Crater in the eastern part of Oceanus Procellarum. Discordant ages of approximately 3.6, approximately 0.8, approximately 3.9, and approximately 2.2 Ga for this lunar granite were obtained, respectively, by the K-Ca, Ar-39/Ar-40, and U-Pb zircon methods in previous studies and by the Rb-Sr method is this study. Assuming the granite crystallized approximately 3.9 Ga ago (zircon age) and was shocked by meteoritic impacts at 0.8 Ga ago (Ar-39-Ar-40 age), the intermediate apparent ages by the Rb-Sr and K-Ca methods can be interpreted as reset by diffusion of the parent and daughter nuclides. The Rb-Sr age is less resistant to resetting than the K-Ca age, but more resistant that the Ar-39/Ar-40 age.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-Fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 3: N-Z; p 1295-1296
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