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  • LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION  (937)
  • ASTROPHYSICS  (459)
  • 1975-1979  (1,248)
  • 1970-1974  (148)
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-06-27
    Description: The May 29, 1978, occultation of SAO 85009 by Pallas was observed photoelectrically at seven widely spaced sites. The observations are well represented by an elliptical apparent limb profile having semimajor and semiminor axes of 279.5 + or - 2.9 and 262.7 + or - 4.5 km, respectively. Combining these results with published information on the light curve and rotational pole position, Pallas's mean diameter is found to be 538 + or - 12 km, which yields a mean density for Pallas of 2.8 + or - 0.5 g/cu cm and a visual geometric albedo of 0.103 + or - 0.005. The diameter of Pallas as determined from this occultation is significantly smaller than the values derived by radiometric, polarimetric, and double-image techniques.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Astronomical Journal; 84; Feb. 197
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2011-08-16
    Description: For 2 weeks continuous imaging, photometry, and polarimetry observations were made of Jupiter and the Galilean satellites in red and blue light from Pioneer 11. Measurements of Jupiter's north and south polar regions were possible because the spacecraft trajectory was highly inclined to the planet's equatorial plane. One of the highest resolution images obtained is presented here along with a comparison of a sample of our photometric and polarimetric data with a simple model. The data seem consistent with increased molecular scattering at high latitudes.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Science; 188; May 2
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-06-27
    Description: For abstract, see Vol. 1
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-CR-137847 , MCR-76-186-VOL-2
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-06-27
    Description: Mission concepts and technology advancements that can be used in the exploration of the outer planet satellites were examined. Titan, the seventh satellite of Saturn was selected as the target of interest. Science objectives for Titan exploration were identified, and recommended science payloads for four basic mission modes were developed (orbiter, atmospheric probe, surface penetrator and lander). Trial spacecraft and mission designs were produced for the various mission modes. Using these trial designs as a base, technology excursions were then made to find solutions to the problems resulting from these conventional approaches and to uncover new science, technology and mission planning options. Several mission modes were developed that take advantage of the unique conditions expected at Titan. They include a combined orbiter, atmosphere probe and lander vehicle, a combined probe and surface penetrator configuration and concepts for advanced remote sensing orbiters.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-CR-137846 , MCR-76-186-VOL-1
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2006-01-11
    Description: Thermostimulated exoelectronic emission of eight fragments of regolith returned by the Soviet Luna 16 automatic station was studied. The nature of the exoemission glove-curves was determined by particle type. Fragments of breccia, sinter, slag, anorthosite, glass plate, and leucocratic gabbro after the first heating disclosed a single exoemission maximum, whose temperature position is in the range 115 to 200 C. The data obtained indicate the complex and inhomogeneous energy structure of some regolith fragments. The presence of surface states capable of forming sorptive bonds can be assumed for most particles. The exoemission of anorthosite, olivine, and the glass spherule is due to the presence of formation defects at their surfaces.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar Soil from the Sea of Fertility (NASA-TT-F-15881); p 528-537
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2006-01-11
    Description: Preliminary data from an investigation of tracks in olivine crystals, separated from the five zones of a lunar surface material core, are reported. The gradients of track densities, their lengths, and their angular distribution were measured with an optical microscope. Throughout the core depth (35 cm) crystals bearing traces of exposure to low energy solar cosmic rays were found, indicating the occurrence of mixing processes in the surficial layer of lunar surface material. The age of the occurrence of the samples investigated on the lunar surface, calculated from the track density, is in the interval 0.7 to 16 million years.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar Soil from the Sea of Fertility (NASA-TT-F-15881); p 379-387
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2006-01-11
    Description: A secondary electron multiplier was used to study the thermostimulated exoelectronic emission of particles of lunar surface material returned by the Soviet Luna 16 automatic station. The natural exoemission from fragments of slag, glass, anorthosite, and a metallic particle was recorded in the isochronic and isothermal thermostimulation regimes. The temperature of emission onset depended on the type of regolith fragment. For the first three particles the isothermal drop in emission is described by first-order kinetic equations. For the anorthosite fragment, exoemission at constant temperature is characterized by a symmetric curve with a maximum. These data indicate the presence of active surface defects, whose nature can be due to the prehistory of the particles.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar Soil from the Sea of Fertility (NASA-TT-F-15881); p 521-527
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-08-17
    Description: Evidence for lightning on Venus obtained by the Pioneer Venus 1 Orbiter is presented. The first indications of lightning were detected by the electric field detector on board the Orbiter when the spacecraft periapsis, which is well within the ionosphere, moved into the night side of the planet. Impulsive wave signals were primarily detected at altitudes less than 25 km, and were found to be strongest at frequencies corresponding to propagation in the whistler mode, occurring at an average rate of about 0.5/sec. The signals were often observed during intervals of low and variable electron densities. It is tentatively concluded on the basis of the above observations that the impulsive events were caused by Venusian lightning.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Nature; 279; June 14
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-08-16
    Description: A Mars surface sample return mission using Mars direct entry and Mars parking orbit return is described. The mission is designed for a minimum energy requirement and is relatively simple in comparison to the alternative Mars orbital rendezvous mode. The design calls for minimal science, and uses a single Titan IIIE/Centaur launch vehicle. The primary science areas included are biology, biochemistry, geochemistry, and petrology, for detecting life, age dating, and determining chemical compositions and rock types. The total minimum sample requirement would be 30 g. Sampling conditions and recommended measurements are discussed. Maximum use of hardware and experience from the Mariner, Pioneer, and Viking missions is contemplated. The profile for a 1979 conjunction-class mission would include a total time of 1025 days, including one year in Mars parking orbit after sampling. The lander structure, components, and recovery alternatives are explained.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Astronautics and Aeronautics; 13; Jan. 197
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Data are reported on 22 elements determined on 11 soils, one soil breccia, and two crystalline rocks from the Apollo 17 Taurus-Littrow landing site. The elements determined include the siderophilic elements Ni, Ge, Ir, and Au. The volatile elements considered include Na, Zn, Cd, and In. Attention is given to the extralunar component in soils and breccias, the orange-glass component in soils and breccias, and the labile elements in lunar soils.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar Science Conference; Mar 18, 1974 - Mar 22, 1974; Houston, TX
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