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  • GEOPHYSICS  (859)
  • LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION  (854)
  • 1980-1984  (1,713)
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2011-08-17
    Description: The Ames Research Center Pioneer 11 plasma analyzer experiment provided measurements of the solar wind interaction with Saturn and the character of the plasma environment within Saturn's magnetosphere. It is shown that Saturn has a detached bow shock wave and magnetopause quite similar to those at earth and Jupiter. The scale size of the interaction region for Saturn is roughly one-third that at Jupiter, but Saturn's magnetosphere is equally responsive to changes in the solar wind dynamic pressure. Saturn's outer magnetosphere is inflated, as evidenced by the observation of large fluxes of corotating plasma. It is postulated that Saturn's magnetosphere may undergo a large expansion when the solar wind pressure is greatly diminished by the presence of Jupiter's extended magnetospheric tail when the two planets are approximately aligned along the same solar radial vector.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Science; 207; Jan. 25
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: It is pointed out that the redeployment of ISEE 3 from its continuous monitoring of the solar wind in a large orbit about the upstream Lagrangian point to an extended magnetotail orbit has afforded an opportunity for deep-tail passage of October 1982, and in the radial range from 200 to 220 R(E) during the near-apogee part of the second tail passage in January-February 1983. Attention is given to instrumentation and data sets, spacecraft positions, and observational data.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 89; 3855-386
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2014-09-17
    Description: The detection of the J = 10 manifold of the pure rotational band of PH3 on Saturn is reported. The observations were made from the far-infrared cooled grating spectrometer. The wavelengths and observed brightness temperatures for the full disk plus rings are 89 + or - 3 K at 97.04 micrometer, 77 + or - 3 K at 102.72 micrometer, 77 + or - 3 K at 102.94 micrometer, and 83 + or - 3 K at 105.12 micrometers. The points of 97.04 and 105.12 micrometers establish the continuum level and the two points near 103 micrometers measure the depth of the PH3 manifold. After the flux due to the rings is subtracted, the depth of the feature is 16 + or - 6 K relative to the nearby 102 K continuum. These results are compared to theoretical models which parameterize the PH3 mixing ratio as x = x sub zero (P/P sub zero)(alpha) for P P sub zero and as x = x sub zero for P or = P, where P is the total pressure and alpha = H/h is the ratio of the dynamical scale height (H) and the scale height for decreasing the PH3 mixing ratio (h). The parameters x sub zero, P sub zero, and h were varied, as well as the H/He mixing ratio and the pressure-temperature profile. The data are well fitted using pressure-temperature profiles. The preferred values of h, P sub zero, and x sub zero imply that there is little or no PH3 above the thermal inversion and that the mixing ratio below the inversion is consistent with PH3 being 1 to 4 times overabundant relative to the solar P/H ratio.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Airborne Astron. Symp.; p 76-80
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-08-13
    Description: Dynamics Explorer 1 measurements of intense low-frequency electric and magnetic noise observed at low altitudes over the auroral zone are described. The intensity of both the electric and magnetic fields decreases rapidly with increasing frequency. Most of the energy is at frequencies below the O(+) cyclotron frequency, and some evidence is found for a cutoff or change in spectral slope near that frequency. The magnetic to electric field ratio decreases rapidly with increasing radial distance and also decreases with increasing frequency. The polarization of the electric field in a plane perpendicular to the earth's magnetic field is essentially random. The transverse electric and magnetic fields are closely correlated, with the average Poynting flux directed toward the earth. The total electromagnetic power flow associated with the noise is substantial. Two general models are discussed to interpret these observations, one based on static electric and magnetic fields imbedded in the ionosphere and the other based on Alfven waves propagating along the auroral field lines.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: AD-A150627 , Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 89; 8971-898
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A ground-based search for stratospheric 35-ClO was carried out using an infrared heterodyne spectrometer in the solar absorption mode. Lines due to stratospheric HNO3 and tropospheric OCS were detected at about 0.2% absorptance levels, but the expected 0.1% lines of ClO in this same region were not seen. We find that stratospheric ClO is at least a factor of seven less abundant than is indicated by in situ measurements, and we set an upper limit of 2.3x10 to the 13th molecules/sq cm at the 95% confidence level for the integrated vertical column density of ClO. Our results imply that the release of chlorofluorocarbons may be significantly less important for the destruction of stratospheric ozone (O3) than is currently thought.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-85026 , NAS 1.15:85026
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Contours and gridded values are given for seven years of monthly mean total ozone data derived from observations with the Backscattered Ultraviolet instrument on Nimbus-4 for the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. The instrument, algorithm, uncertainties in derived ozone and systematic changes in the bias with respect to the international groundbased ozone network of Dobson instruments, are discussed.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-RP-1098 , REPT-82F0128-VOL-1 , NAS 1.61:1098
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A ground based search for the 856.50137/cm R(9.5) and for the 859.76765 R(12.5) transitions of stratospheric (Cl-35)O was made in the solar absorption mode using an infrared heterodyne spectrometer. Lines due to stratospheric HNO3 and tropospheric OCS were detected, at about 0.3% absorption levels. The expected lines of ClO in this same region were not detected, even though the optical depth of the ClO lines should be on the order of 0.2% using currently accepted ClO abundances. These infrared measurements suggest that stratospheric ClO is at least a factor of 7 less abundant than is indicated by indirect in situ fluorescence measurements, and the upper limit of 2.4x10 to the 13th power molecules/sq cm to the integrated column density of ClO is a factor of over 4 less than is indicted by microwave measurements. Results imply that the release of fluorocarbon precursors of ClO may be significantly less important for the destruction of stratospheric ozone than was previously thought.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-83939 , NAS 1.15:83939
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Increased understanding of the chemical phenomena occurring in the troposphere was the research goal. Emphasis was placed on tropospheric impact on environmental quality, including public health, agriculture, climate, and weather.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: L-13855 , NASA-RP-1062
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2006-02-14
    Description: The prime objective of this experiment is to obtain chemical analyses of a statistically significant number of micrometeoroids. These data will then be compared with the chemical composition of meteorites. Secondary objectives of the experiment relate to density, shape, mass frequency, and absolute flux of micrometeorids as deduced from detailed crater geometrics (depth) diameter, and plane shape, and number of total events observed.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA. Langley Research Center Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF); p 127-130
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: It is pointed out that Titan, which is the second largest satellite in the solar system, is considerably larger than Mercury. It is made unique by its dense atmosphere, which consists mainly of nitrogen, although a substantial component of methane is present. The basic properties of Titan are summarized in a table. Many of the data were obtained during the close pass of Voyager 1 in November 1980. The atmospheric temperature decreases from its surface value of 94 K at a pressure of 1500 mbar to a minimum of 71 K at a height of 42 km and a pressure of 128 mbar. Details of atmospheric composition and thermal structure are discussed, taking into account chemical identifications and abundances, the vertical temperature structure, the horizontal temperature and opacity structure, and the radiative equilibrium. The upper atmosphere composition and temperature is considered along with the properties of aerosols, and meteorology and atmospheric dynamics. Titan's interior has an average density of 1.88 g per cu cm. Attention is given to Titan's surface and interior, and its formation.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
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