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  • LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION  (35)
  • 2005-2009
  • 1990-1994  (35)
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: A model of Saturn's magnetic field, called Saturn Pioneer Voyager (SPV), is developed on the basis of an analysis of three sets of data: those from the Pioneer 11, the Voyager 1, and the Voyager 2 magnetometers. It is shown that the SPV model fits the data observed between 1.3 and 8.0 Saturn radii from the planet's center with a 1.13 percent weighted rms average of the percent differences between the observed and modeled fields, which is substantially better than the fits yielded by any of the previous models.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 95; 15257-15
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Trace element analyses of the phosphates minerals in stony-iron pallasite meteorites are used here to investigate the magmatic history of the silicate portions of pallasites. In Eagle Station and seven other pallasites, the phosphates have relatively low concentrations of REEs and are strongly enriched in heavy relative to light REE. These patterns are consistent with formation of phosphate by subsolidus reactions between metal and silicate, in which phosphate inherits the REE pattern of olivine. In Springwater and Santa Rosalia, calcium-rich phosphates have higher concentrations of REE, are enriched in light relative to heavy REE, and have negative europium anomalies. These patterns are consistent with crystallization of phosphate from a europium-depleted chondritic liquid. This is unlikely to have happened near the base of the differentiating parent-body mantle; it suggests that some pallasites may come from regions of their parent bodies much nearer the surface than the core-mantle boundary.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Nature (ISSN 0028-0836); 353; 637-640
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: The duration of ice-covered lakes after the initial freezing of the early Mars is presently estimated via a climate model whose critical parameter is the existence of peak seasonal temperatures above freezing, and in which the variability of insolation is included. Under conditions in which meltwater was supplied by an ice source, it is found that water habitats could have been maintained under relatively thin ice sheets for as many as 700 million years after the onset of below-freezing global temperatures. The duration of such habitats on the early Mars therefore exceeds the upper limit of the time envisioned for the emergence of aquatic life on earth.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Icarus (ISSN 0019-1035); 90; 214-221
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Synthetic forsterite (Mg2SiO4) was partially evaporated in vacuum for various durations and at different temperatures. The residual charges obtained when molten Mg2SiO4 was evaporated to 12 percent of its initial mass were enriched in heavy isotopes by about 20, 30, and 15 per mil/amu for O, Mg, and Si, respectively, whereas solid forsterite evaporated to a similar residual mass fraction showed negligible fractionations. These results imply that calcium and aluminum-rich refractory inclusions in carbonaceous chondrites must have been at least partially molten in the primordial solar nebula if the observed large mass fractionation effects were caused by evaporation processes in the nebula.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Nature (ISSN 0028-0836); 347; 655-658
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Detailed photoclinometric data are presented for a variety of surface features (pits, troughs, wall valleys, and grabens) within three study areas in the western equatorial regions of Mars (Lunae, Syria, and Sinai Plana) that provide evidence for mechanical discontinuities within the shallow Martian crust in these regions. The data's relation to some of the previously proposed mechanical discontinuities within the Martian crust is discussed, and the geologic significance of these features is speculated upon.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 95; 14231-14
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Our MSATT work has focused on the evolution of CO2 on Mars. We have constructed a model that predicts the evolution of CO2 on Mars from a specified initial amount at the end of the heavy bombardment to the present. The model draws on published estimates of the main process believed to affect the fate of CO2 during this period: chemical weathering, regolith uptake, polar cap formation, and atmospheric escape. Except for escape, the rate at which these processes act is controlled by surface temperatures that we calculate using a modified version of the Gierasch and Toon energy balance model. Various aspects of this work are covered.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Mars: Past, Present, and Future. Results from the MSATT Program, Part 1; p 19-20
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: There is considerable evidence that Mars had liquid water early in its history and possibly at recurrent interval. It has generally been assumed that this implied that the climate was warmer as a result of a thicker CO2 atmosphere than at the present. However, recent models suggest that Mars may have had a thick atmosphere but may not have experienced mean annual temperatures above freezing. In this paper we report on models of liquid water formation and maintenance under temperatures well below freezing. Our studies are based on work in the north and south polar regions of Earth. Our results suggest that early Mars did have a thick atmosphere but precipitation and hence erosion was rare. Transient liquid water, formed under temperature extremes and maintained under thick ice covers, could account for the observed fluvial features. The main difference between the present climate and the early climate was that the total surface pressure was well above the triple point of water.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Workshop on Early Mars: How Warm and How Wet?, Part 1; p 18
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: There are several lines of evidence that suggest early Mars was warmer and wetter than it is at present. Perhaps the most convincing of these are the valley networks and degraded craters that characterize much of the ancient terrains. In both cases, fluvial activity associated with liquid water is believed to be involved. Thus, Mars appears to have had a warmer climate early in its history than it does today. How much warmer is not clear, but a common perception has been that global mean surface temperatures must have been near freezing - almost 55 K warmer than at present. The most plausible way to increase surface temperatures is through the greenhouse effect, and the most plausible greenhouse gas is CO2. Pollack et al. estimate that in the presence of the faint young Sun, the early Martian atmosphere would have to contain almost 5 bar of CO2 to raise the mean surface temperature up to the freezing level; only 1 bar would be required if the fluvial features were formed near the calculations now appear to be wrong since Kasting showed that CO2 will condense in the atmosphere at these pressures and that this greatly reduces the greenhouse effect of a pure CO2 atmosphere. He suggested that alternative greenhouse gases such as CH4 or NH3, are required. The early Mars dilemma is approached from a slightly different point of view. In particular, a model for the evolution of CO2 on Mars that draws upon published processes that affect such evolution was constructed. Thus, the model accounts for the variation of solar luminosity with time, the greenhouse effect, regolith uptake, polar cap formation, escape, and weathering.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Workshop on Early Mars: How Warm and How Wet?, Part 1; p 13-14
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Before large power systems for manned exploration of the Martian surface can be put into place, it must be determined how their performance will be affected by the Martian environment. A program was started to assess the impact of these environmental factors on power system performance, and to find ways to mitigate the degradative effects. The effects of blowing dust on photovoltaic (PV) and radiator surfaces is studied. Extensive use was made of the Martian Surface Wind Tunnel (MARSWIT) located at NASA-Ames to simulate Martian winds. Two basic types of experiment sets were run. In the first, the threshold clearing velocity of dust deposited on PV coverslip material and high emissivity radiator materials in clear Martian-like winds was examined. In the second, dust was dropped near the inlet of the wind tunnel and the winds were allowed to carry the dust past the samples, simulating a dust storm. A summary of results is given.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA. Ames Research Center, Sand and Dust on Mars; p 18-19
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Recent work on the north Tharsis of Mars has revealed a complex geologic history involving volcanism, tectonism, flooding, and mass wasting. Our detailed photogeologic analysis of this region found many previously unreported volcanic vents, volcaniclastic flows, irregular cracks, and minor pit chains; additional evidence that volcanic tectonic processes dominated this region throughout Martian geologic time; and the local involvement of these processes with surface and near surface water. Also, photoclinometric profiles were obtained within the region of troughs, simple grabens, and pit chains, as well as average spacings of pits along pit chains. These data were used together with techniques to estimate depths of crustal mechanical discontinuities that may have controlled the development of these features. In turn, such discontinuities may be controlled by stratigraphy, presence of water or ice, or chemical cementation.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA, Washington, Reports of Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program, 1990; p 73-74
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