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  • 1
    ISSN: 0570-0833
    Keywords: Magnetic properties ; Organic magnets ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Magnets composed of molecular species or polymers and prepared by relatively low-temperature organic synthetic methodologies are a focus of contemporary materials science research. The anticipated properties of such molecular-species-based magnetic materials, particularly in combination with other properties associated with molecules and polymers, may enable their use in future generations of electronic, magnetic, and/or photonic/photronic devices ranging from information storage and magnetic imaging to static and low-frequency magnetic shielding. A tutorial of typical magnetic behavior of molecular materials is presented. The three distinct models (intramolecular spin coupling through orthogonal orbitals in the same spatial region within a molecule/ion, intermolecular spin coupling through pairwise “configuration interaction” between spin-containing moieties, and dipole - dipole, through-space interactions) which enable the design of new molecular-based magnetic materials are discussed. To achieve the required spin couplings for bulk ferro- or ferrimagnetic behavior it is crucial to prepare materials with the necessary primary, secondary, and tertiary structures akin to proteins. Selected results from the worldwide effort aimed at preparing molecular-based magnetic materials by these mechanisms are described. Some organometallic solids comprised of linear chains of alternating metallocenium donors (D) and cyanocarbon acceptors (A) that is, …D•+ A•- D•+ A•-…, exhibit cooperative magnetic phenomena. Bulk ferromagnetic behavior was first observed below the critical (Curie) temperature Tc of 4.8 K for [FeIII(C5Me5)2]•+ [TCNE]•- (Me = methyl; TCNE = tetracyanoethylene). Replacement of FeIII with MnIII leads to a ferromagnet with a Tc of 8.8 K in agreement with mean-field models developed for this class of materials. Replacement with CrIII, however, leads to a ferromagnet with a Tc lowered to 3.65 K which is at variance with this model. Extension to the reaction of a vanadium(o) complex with TCNE leads to the isolation of a magnet with a Tc ≈ 400 K, which exceeds the thermal decomposition temperature of the material. This demonstrates that a magnetic material with a Tc substantially above room temperature is achievable in a molecule/organic/polymeric material. Finally, a new class of one-dimensional ferrimagnetic materials based on metalloporphins is discussed.
    Additional Material: 30 Ill.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0365-9496
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0365-9496
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0365-9496
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0021-8383
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0021-9304
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: We report the biocompatibility in the rat brain of a controlled-release, biodegradable polymer, the polyanhydride poly-[bis(p-carboxyphenoxy)propane-sebacic acid] copolymer (PCPP-SA) in a 20:80 formulation. The biodegradable polyanhydride can be used for drug delivery directly into the brain, circumventing the difficulties posed by the blood - brain barrier and avoiding the consequences of having to administer toxic doses systemically to reach therapeutic doses in the central nervous system. The tissue reaction in the presence of PCPP-SA was compared to that seen with other standard neurosurgical implants. Fifty-six adult Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to one of seven groups and underwent bilateral frontal lobe implantation of PCPP-SA (42 hemispheres), Surgicel (oxidized regenerated cellulose) (35 hemispheres), or Gelfoam (absorbable gelatin sponge) (35 hemispheres). None of the animals showed any behavioral changes or neurological deficits suggestive of either systemic or localized toxicity from the biodegradable polyanhydride, all surviving to the scheduled data of sacrifice. PCPP-SA evoked a well localized inflammatory reaction, comparable to that of Surgicel, which resolved as the PCPP-SA polymer degraded over five weeks. The biodegradable polyanhydride has been shown in this study to be nontoxic and biocompatible in the rat brain, when compared to standard neurosurgical implants.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0022-3832
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The dilute solution properties of copolymers are briefly discussed in relation to those of the parent homopolymers. It is shown that copolymer molecules are usually more expanded in solution than would be expected from the averaged behavior of the pure polymers, because of repulsive interactions between the unlike monomer units. A thermodynamic parameter χAB characterizing these interactions can be derived from measurements of the dilute solution properties of copolymers. In favorable cases this parameter can be independently evaluated from studies of ternary systems composed of the two parent homopolymers and a solvent, thus allowing prediction of the behavior of the copolymer. Light scattering and viscosity measurements on fractions of approximately equimolal copolymers of styrene and methyl methacrylate are presented and analyzed. The values of χAB deduced from the results in two solvents agree satisfactorily with each other, but are somewhat larger than those earlier obtained from measurements on ternary systems.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Polymer Science 23 (1957), S. 23-46 
    ISSN: 0022-3832
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Osmotic pressure, initial phase separation, and viscosity results are presented for dilute solutions of cellulose nitrate, cellulose acetate, and ethyl cellulose, using polymers of similar molecular weight and degree of substitution. A fairly wide range of solvents has been used in each case. Osmotic pressure results suggest molecular dispersion of polymer in most solvents but there is evidence for association of ethyl cellulose in aromatic hydrocarbons. Values of the Huggins μ are obtained and, for systems involving cellulose nitrate and ethyl cellulose in homologous series of ketones and acetates, seem to fall to a minimum and then increase on ascent of each series. It is suggested that the heat term in μ should include an exothermic contribution arising from solvation in addition to an endothermic contribution resulting from mixing of solvated polymer and solvent. It is tentatively suggested that, in a homologous series of solvents, the entropy and exothermic contributions may not vary much and that the variation of μ may arise from varying endothermic contributions. The volumes of hexane required to cause initial phase separation of the nitrate and acetate from solution increase with solvent power, as estimated from μ, but with ethyl cellulose the volumes tend to decrease. It is suggested that solvated polymer may separate from solutions involving polar solvents and, making certain assumptions, estimates are made of the solubility parameters of the polymers separating. Those for cellulose nitrate vary markedly with solvent. The variation of solubility parameter with solvent is less with cellulose acetate and ethyl cellulose but in the latter case values for polymer separating from polar solvents are less than from nonpolar. Comparison of these estimated solubility parameters with those of the solvents and hexane suggests that the volumes of hexane required to cause initial phase separation will only serve as measures of solvent power if the solubility parameters of solvents and precipitant all lie on the same side of that of the polymer separating. This seems to be so for cellulose acetate and possibly the nitrate but not for ethyl cellulose. Comparison of viscosity parameters and values of μ suggests that in certain cases both [η] and the initial slope of the plot of ηsp/c against c increase with solvent power. Other suggested viscosity measures of solvent power do not seem to be generally applicable. Some variation of chain configuration with solvent seems probable. Solvation, solvent type and association of polymer may also affect the viscosities of dilute solutions of cellulose derivatives.
    Additional Material: 13 Ill.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Polymer Science 58 (1962), S. 1023-1037 
    ISSN: 0022-3832
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Functional groups and degradation of cotton oxidized by hypochlorite at several pH values in the range 5-10 were studied. The carboxyl group content of the oxidized cottons increases, while the aldehyde and ketone group contents decrease with increase in pH. Approximately 40% of the oxidant consumed is accounted for by the functional groups at all pH values. The ratio of carboxyl, aldehyde, and ketone groups formed per scission is 1-1.5:3:3.5 at the acidic pH range and 5:0.8:0.0 at pH 10. Oxygen consumption per scission is 26 atoms, out of which 10.4 atoms are accounted for by the functional groups. The rest of the oxygen is explained by oxidation of the soluble products of the short chain material in the fiber phase and by the functional groups of the short chains with D.P. up to 37. The degradation was found to be random at the whole pH range studied, as proved by the ratio of the number-average and weight-average molecular weights and by the linearity of the plot of log [η] vs. log (Oc + Oc0) where Oc is the oxygen consumed and Oco a constant. It is suggested that the degradation and oxidation reactions occur simultaneously and, at a given pH, with similar rates, so that all carbon atoms of an anhydroglucose unit in all chains of the amorphous phase will have a similar probability of being attacked.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Polymer Science 26 (1957), S. 399-401 
    ISSN: 0022-3832
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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