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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-12-06
    Description: The economic potential of ethnic and cultural diversity is often underestimated. This paper summarizes a number of recent studies which show that 'soft' factors such as attitudes, perceptions and identities - and in particular ethnic identities - significantly affect economic outcomes. More specifically, the studies analyze the process of cultural integration over migrant generations as well as the process of job search and labor market reintegration of the unemployed. The economy can thus gain productivity and efficiency by recognizing and incorporating such multi-ethnic factors. Cultural assimilation that goes along with a loss of migrants' own cultural heritage does not appear to be the sole or dominant strategy of an economically successful integration. To tap the full potential of ethnic and cultural diversity, an increased cultural and ethnic open-mindedness of the native population is desirable.
    Keywords: F22 ; J15 ; J61 ; ddc:330 ; Einwanderer ; multikulturelle Gesellschaft ; ethnische Gruppe ; Minderheiten ; nationale Identität ; Berufserfolg ; Arbeitslose ; berufliche Reintegration ; interkulturelle Faktoren ; kulturelle Faktoren ; berufliche Integration ; Inländer ; interkulturelle Kompetenz ; Schlüsselqualifikation ; soziale Qualifikation ; soziale Integration ; kulturelle Identität ; kulturelles Kapital ; Assimilation ; Segregation ; Marginalität ; ökonomische Faktoren
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 2
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-08
    Description: We investigate second generation migrants and native children at several stages in the German education system to analyze the determinants of the persistent native-migrant gap. One part of the gap can be attributed to differences in socioeconomic background and another part remains unexplained. Faced with this decomposition problem, we apply linear and matching decomposition methods. Accounting for differences in socioeconomic background, we find that migrant pupils are just as likely to receive recommendations for or to enroll at any secondary school type as native children. Comparable natives, in terms of family background, thus face similar difficulties as migrant children. Our results point at more general inequalities in secondary schooling in Germany which are not migrant-specific.
    Keywords: J15 ; J24 ; I21 ; ddc:330 ; migration ; education ; human capital ; Germany ; tracking
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 3
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2016-06-22
    Description: Das ökonomische Potenzial ethnischer und kultureller Vielfalt wird häufig verkannt. Die Ergebnisse neuerer Studien, die in diesem Beitrag zusammengefasst werden, zeigen jedoch, dass sich weiche Faktoren wie etwa Einstellungen, Wahrnehmungen und Identitäten, hier insbesondere ethnische Identitäten, wesentlich auf ökonomische Ergebnisse auswirken können. Dies geht sowohl aus Analysen des Prozesses kultureller Integration in einer generationenübergreifenden Perspektive als auch aus Untersuchungen der Arbeitsplatzsuche und der Wiedereingliederung von Arbeitslosen in den Arbeitsmarkt hervor. Eine Volkswirtschaft kann sich durch eine geeignete Beachtung und Einbeziehung multi-ethnischer Faktoren ökonomisch besser stellen. Kulturelle und ethnische Assimilation von Zuwanderern ist deshalb keine alleinige oder dominante Strategie der ökonomisch erfolgreichen Einbindung in die Aufnahmegesellschaft. Neben einer besseren Aktivierung der Integrationspotenziale bei Personen mit Migrationshintergrund ist auch eine kulturelle oder ethnische Öffnung der Einheimischen sinnvoll.
    Keywords: F22 ; J15 ; J61 ; ddc:330 ; migration ; ethnicity ; ethnic identity ; labor market success
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 4
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    Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2017-06-21
    Description: Immigrants are typically not evenly distributed within host countries; instead they tend to cluster in particular neighborhoods. But does clustering in ethnic enclaves help explain the persistent differences in employment rates and earnings between immigrants and the native population? Empirical studies consistently find that residing in an enclave can increase earnings. While it is still ambiguous whether mainly low-skilled immigrants benefit, or whether employment probabilities are affected, it is clear that effects are driven by enclave “quality” (in terms of income, education, and employment rates) rather than enclave size.
    Keywords: J15 ; R23 ; Z10 ; ddc:330 ; immigrant concentration ; ethnic networks ; immigrant labor market integration
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 5
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-26
    Description: A lack of cultural integration is often blamed for hindering immigrant families' economic progression. This paper is a first attempt to explore whether immigrant parents' ethnic identity affects the next generation's human capital accumulation in the host country. Empirical results based on data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) indicate that maternal majority as well as paternal minority identity are positively related to the educational attainment of second-generation youth - even controlling for differences in ethnicity, family background and years-since-migration. Additional tests show that the effect of maternal majority identity can be explained by mothers' German language proficiency, while the beneficial effect of fathers' minority identity is not related to language skills and thus likely to stem from paternal minority identity per se.
    Keywords: I21 ; J15 ; J16 ; ddc:330 ; Ethnic Identity ; Second-Generation Immigrants ; Education ; Migranten ; Kulturelle Identität ; Bildungsverhalten ; Bildungsniveau ; Generationenbeziehungen ; Schätzung ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-02-22
    Description: Estimating the effect of ethnic capital on human capital investment decisions is complicated by the endogeneity of immigrants’ location choice, unobserved local correlates and the reflection problem. We exploit the institutional setting of a rare immigrant settlement policy in Germany, that generates quasi-random assignment across regions, and identify the causal impact of heterogeneous ethnic capital on educational outcomes of children. Correcting for endogenous location choice and correlated unobservables, we find that children of low-educated parents benefit significantly from the presence of high-educated parental peers of the same ethnicity. High educated parental peers from other ethnicities do not influence children’s learning achievements. Our estimates are unlikely to be confounded by the reflection problem since we study the effects of parental peers’ human capital which is pre-determined with respect to children’s outcomes. Our findings further suggest an increase in parental aspirations as a possible mechanism driving the heterogeneous ethnic capital effects, implying that profiling peers or ethnic role models could be important for migrant integration policies.
    Keywords: R23 ; J15 ; I21 ; ddc:330 ; Education ; Ethnic Capital ; Germany ; Peer Effects ; Policy Experiment
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 7
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    Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-15
    Description: We investigate second generation migrants and native children at several stages in the German education system to analyze the determinants of the persistent native-migrant gap. One part of the gap can be attributed to differences in socioeconomic background and another part remains unexplained. Faced with this decomposition problem, we apply linear and matching decomposition methods. Accounting for differences in socioeconomic background, we find that migrant pupils are just as likely to receive recommendations for or to enroll at any secondary school type as native children. Comparable natives, in terms of family background, thus face similar difficulties as migrant children. Our results point at more general inequalities in secondary schooling in Germany which are not migrant-specific.
    Keywords: J15 ; J24 ; I21 ; ddc:330 ; migration ; education ; human capital ; Germany ; tracking ; Migranten ; Schüler ; Bildungsniveau ; Vergleich ; Bevölkerung ; Sozialer Status ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 8
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    Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-15
    Description: Ethnic groups tend to agglomerate and assemble, mostly in urban areas. While ethnic clustering is critically debated in societies and the consequences for economic outcomes are under debate in research, the process is not yet well understood. A separate literature has also examined the cultural and ethnic identity of immigrants and how these affect their economic performance and societal integration. However, an unexplored channel connects ethnic clustering with ethnic identity formation. Therefore this paper examines the role of ethnic geographic clustering in the sociocultural integration of immigrants. It employs survey data from the German Socio-Economic Panel, combined with disaggregated information at a low geographical level from the unexploited German full census of 1970 and 1987. We employ the exogenous placement of immigrants during their recruitment in the 1960s and 1970s and find that local co-ethnic concentration affects immigrants' cultural integration. Residential ethnic clustering strengthens immigrants' retention of an affiliation with their respective country of origin and weakens identification with the host society. The effects are nonlinear and only become significant at relatively high levels of co-ethnic concentration for the minority identity and at very low levels of local concentration for the majority identity. Our findings are robust to the use of an instrumental variable approach.
    Keywords: J15 ; R23 ; Z10 ; ddc:330 ; ethnic minorities ; residential segregation ; ethnic identity ; spatial dispersion ; ethnic enclaves
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 9
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    Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-15
    Description: A lack of cultural integration is often blamed for hindering immigrant families' economic progression. This paper is a first attempt to explore whether immigrant parents' ethnic identity affects the next generation's human capital accumulation in the host country. Empirical results based on data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP) indicate that maternal majority as well as paternal minority identity are positively related to the educational attainment of second-generation youth - even controlling for differences in ethnicity, family background and years-since-migration. Additional tests show that the effect of maternal majority identity can be explained by mothers' German language proficiency, while the beneficial effect of fathers' minority identity is not related to language skills and thus likely to stem from paternal minority identity per se.
    Keywords: I21 ; J15 ; J16 ; ddc:330 ; ethnic identity ; second-generation immigrants ; education ; Migranten ; Kulturelle Identität ; Bildungsverhalten ; Bildungsniveau ; Generationenbeziehungen ; Schätzung ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 10
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    Bonn: Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2015-05-22
    Description: Das ökonomische Potenzial ethnischer und kultureller Vielfalt wird häufig verkannt. Die Ergebnisse neuerer Studien, die in diesem Beitrag zusammengefasst werden, zeigen jedoch, dass sich weiche Faktoren wie etwa Einstellungen, Wahrnehmungen und Identitäten, hier insbesondere ethnische Identitäten, wesentlich auf ökonomische Ergebnisse auswirken können. Dies geht sowohl aus Analysen des Prozesses kultureller Integration in einer generationenübergreifenden Perspektive als auch aus Untersuchungen der Arbeitsplatzsuche und der Wiedereingliederung von Arbeitslosen in den Arbeitsmarkt hervor. Eine Volkswirtschaft kann sich durch eine geeignete Beachtung und Einbeziehung multi-ethnischer Faktoren ökonomisch besser stellen. Kulturelle und ethnische Assimilation von Zuwanderern ist deshalb keine alleinige oder dominante Strategie der ökonomisch erfolgreichen Einbindung in die Aufnahmegesellschaft. Neben einer besseren Aktivierung der Integrationspotenziale bei Personen mit Migrationshintergrund ist auch eine kulturelle oder ethnische Öffnung der Einheimischen sinnvoll.
    Keywords: F22 ; J15 ; J61 ; ddc:330 ; Arbeitsmarkterfolg ; ethnische Vielfalt ; ethnische Identität ; Migration ; Ethnische Gruppe ; Multikulturelle Gesellschaft ; Kulturelle Identität ; Soziale Integration ; Arbeitsmarkt ; Arbeitsmarktpolitik ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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