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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-07-18
    Description: In many policy areas it is essential to use the best estimates of life expectancy, but such estimates are vital to most areas of pension policy – from indexed access age and the calculation of initial benefits to the financial sustainability of pension schemes and the operation of their balancing mechanism. This paper presents the conceptual differences between static period and dynamic cohort mortality tables, estimates the differences in life expectancy between both tables using data from Portugal and Spain, and compares official estimates of both life expectancy estimates for Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States for 1981, 2010 and 2060. This comparison reveals major differences between period and cohort life expectancy in and between countries and across years. Using measures of period instead of cohort life expectancy creates an implicit subsidy for individuals of 30 percent or more, with potentially stark consequences on the financial sustainability of pension schemes. These and other implications for pension policy are explored and next steps suggested.
    Keywords: D9 ; G22 ; H55 ; J13 ; J14 ; J16 ; ddc:330 ; cross-country comparison ; Lee-Carter ; life expectancy indexation ; balancing mechanism
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 2
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    Munich: Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute (CESifo)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-27
    Description: In many policy areas it is essential to use the best estimates of life expectancy, but it is vital to most areas of pension policy. This paper presents the conceptual differences between static period and dynamic cohort mortality tables, estimates the differences in life expectancy for Portugal and Spain, and compares official estimates of both life expectancy estimates for Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States for 1981, 2010, and 2060. These comparisons reveal major differences between period and cohort life expectancy in and between countries and across years. The implications of using wrong estimates for pension policy, including financial sustainability, are explored.
    Keywords: G22 ; H55 ; J14 ; ddc:330 ; cross-country comparison ; Lee-Carter ; life expectancy indexation ; balancing mechanism
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2017-01-20
    Description: This paper demonstrates that the link between heterogeneity in longevity and lifetime income across countries is mostly high and often increasing; that it translates into an implicit tax/subsidy, with rates reaching 20 percent and higher in some countries; that such rates risk perverting redistributive objectives of pension schemes and distorting individual lifecycle labor supply and savings decisions; and that this in turn risks invalidating current reform approaches of a closer contribution-benefit link and life expectancy-indexed retirement age. All of this calls for mechanisms that neutralize or at least significantly reduce the effects of heterogeneity in longevity through changes in pension design. The paper suggests and explores a number of interventions in the accumulation, benefit determination, and disbursement stages. Among the explored approaches, a two-tier contribution structure seems promising, as a moderate social contribution rate that is already proportionally allocated to the average contribution base is able to broadly compensate for empirically established heterogeneity in the life expectancy/lifetime income relationship.
    Keywords: D9 ; G22 ; H55 ; J13 ; J14 ; J16 ; ddc:330 ; defined contribution scheme ; two-tier contribution structure ; proxied life expectancy ; tax/subsidy structure
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Fluorine ; Pheromones ; Sulfoxides ; Sulcatol ; Asymmetric synthesis ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: -The pheromone (R)-(-)-sulcatol (10a) and three of its enantiomeric mono-, di-, and trifluoro analogues 10b-d have been synthesized, in six steps and with good overall yields, starting from chiral (R)-2-methyl-5-[(4-methylphenyl)sulfinyl]pent-2-ene (1) and commercially available fluorinated or non-fluorinated acetates.Supporting information for this article is available on the WWW under http://www.wileY-Vch.de/contents/jc_2046/1999/98375_s.pdf or from the author.
    Additional Material: 2 Tab.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Fluorinated dideoxynucleosides ; Through-space interactions ; Hydrogen bonds ; Long-range coupling constants ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: -A collection of 5′-O-benzyl-2′,3′-dideoxy-4′-(fluoromethyl)nucleosides carrying both purinic and pyrimidinic nucleobases (uracil, 5-Br-uracil, 5-O2N-uracil, 6-Cl-purine and inosine) were synthesized in both the α and the β form. Through-space-transmitted 6JCF NMR coupling constants between F and C-6 (pyrimidinic base) or C-8 (purinic base) were observed for all of the α anomers of the compounds examined, whilst the corresponding 7JHF coupling constants were resolved only for the 5-substituted uracil derivatives. The absolute values of all the through-space couplings were found to decrease monotonically with increasing solvent polarity (CDCl3, MeOD, [D6]acetone, [D6]DMSO). This trend suggests that the through-space interaction is mediated by an intramolecular (sp3)C-F…H-C(sp2) hydrogen bond. The possibility of any relevant solvent-induced conformational change influencing the F/base mutual spatial relationship in the molecules investigated was ruled out by heteronuclear steady-state 1H{19F}-NOE experiments. A linear correlation was observed between 6JCF and 7JHF coupling constants and the Kamlet-Taft's hydrogen bond basicity parameter β. The crystal structures of the α and β anomers of the 5-nitrouracil nucleoside show evidence that the H-6 of the nucleobase forms hydrogen-bond-like interactions involving the O-benzyl oxygen atom in the β anomer, and that in the case of the α anomer this is replaced by the F atom of the fluoromethyl group.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Fluorine ; Cycloadditions ; Nitrones ; Asymmetric induction ; Sulfoxides ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: 3-(Fluoroalkyl)isoxazolidines 6 and -2,3-dihydroisoxazoles 8 have been obtained in enantiomerically pure form with good diastereoselectivity by 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of diethyl fumarate and dimethylacetylene dicarboxylate, respectively, to the chiral fluorinated nitrone (R)-5. The latter has been prepared from the β-fluoromethyl-β-oxo sulfoxide (RS)-1, by a synthetic sequence where the chiral and enantiomerically pure sulfinyl function acts as a removable source of chirality. Reductive opening of isoxazolidines 6 then afforded amino fluoromethyl diols 7 in good yields.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Catenanes ; Mechanically interlocked molecules ; Molecular recognition ; Rotaxanes ; Template-directed synthesis ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: -A [2]catenane, able to bind π-electron-rich guests inside the cavity of one of its two macrocyclic components has been designed and synthesized using supramolecular assistance. This recognition motif has been exploited to template the formation of a so-called rotacatenane - i.e., a molecule composed of a dumbbell-shaped component threaded through the cavity of one of the two mechanically interlocked macrocyclic components of a [2]catenane. The structure of this [2]catenane, as well as that of a model [2]catenane, have been characterized unequivocally by single-crystal X-ray analyses. Furthermore, some of the co-conformational changes associated with these mechanically interlocked molecules in solution have been probed by variable-temperature 1H-NMR spectroscopy.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Natural products ; Epoxidations ; Asymmetric synthesis ; Fluorine ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---The synthesis of enantiomerically and diastereomerically pure (-)-(1R,2R,5R)- and (-)-(1R,2S,5R)-2-fluoro frontalin (7) starting from (+)-(1S)-menthyl-(R)-toluene-4-sulfinate, methylmagnesium bromide, methyl fluoroacetate, 4-pentenyl bromide and diazomethane is described. The absolute stereochemistry was unambiguously determined by X-ray analysis of (+)-(1S,2R,5S,RS)-5, an intermediate in the synthesis of the enantiomeric (+)-(1S,2R,5S)-2-fluoro frontalin (7).
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1434-1948
    Keywords: Silicon ; Silyl anions ; Lithium ; Silanes ; Polysilyl dianions ; α,ω-Dilithiooligosilanes ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: (Me3Si)3Si(Me2Si)2(Me3Si)2SiLi (1) and LiSi(Me3Si)2(Me2Si)2Si(Me3Si)2Li (2) were synthesized by the reaction of (Me3Si)3Si(Me2Si)2Si(Me3Si)3 in THF with one or two mol-equivalents, respectively, of MeLi. Both 1 and 2 were characterized spectroscopically and by trapping reactions, and 1 also by X-ray crystallography.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Molecular recognition ; Rotaxanes ; Self-assembly ; Template-directed synthesis ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Three dumbbell-shaped compounds incorporating terminal triisopropylsilyl stoppers, connected to a central 1,5-dioxynaphthalene recognition site by [-CH2CH2O-]n spacers (n = 1-3), have been synthesized. These compounds have been employed as templates for the synthesis of [2]rotaxanes incorporating cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) as the ring component. It was found that the length of the polyether chains of the templates influences the efficiencies of the template-directed syntheses. Rotaxane formation occurs only if n 〉 1 and, when n = 3 the corresponding [2]rotaxane can be isolated in a yield as high as 72 %. This remarkable yield is the highest ever obtained for the template-directed syntheses of [2]rotaxanes incorporating donor/acceptor interactions.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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