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  • Drosophila melanogaster  (2)
  • Interspecific hybridization  (2)
  • Springer  (4)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-6857
    Keywords: Drosophila melanogaster ; isofemale lines ; isogroups ; natural populations ; pigmentation ; body size
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Studies of short or medium range geographic variations play an increasing role in ecological genetics, and sensitive techniques are required to detect them. In this respect, two sampling techniques were compared inD. melanogaster. The biological data were provided by the analysis of four natural populations from the same geographic area, Spain (one) and Southern France (three), for four morphometrical traits: abdomen and thoracic pigmentation, and wing and thorax lengths. Traits were measured on wild living females and on their progeny reared in the laboratory at 25°C. For progeny analyses, two techniques were compared: the usual isofemale line technique, sib families issued from a single female, and a new isogroup technique, the progeny produced by a group of 20 wild-collected parents. Large phenotypic variations were observed in wild living flies, corresponding to the unstability of natural environmental conditions during their development. Among laboratory grown flies, variations were much smaller. Between isogroups, differences were small, due to sampling error and some common environment effects. Variations between lines were much greater, thus demonstrating a strong genetic component. When different populations have to be compared, the isogroup technique should be preferred since, for the same amount of work, the lesser variability between groups provides a more precise characterization of the population means.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Interspecific hybridization ; Embryo rescue ; Ovule culture ; Ovary culture
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Seed was readily obtained from V. corymbosum zygotes using embryo rescue techniques, even when embryos were cultured at proembryonic stages. Best in vitro seed development was obtained when ovules were cultured attached to placental tissues. Successful fruit and seed development in culture occurred only when the fruit was cut longitudinally or when the basal portion of the fruit was removed previous to plating. Addition of various vitamins, amino acids, and growth regulators to the nutrient medium did not increase seed production. Attempts to rescue hybrid embryos from V. croymbosum (tetraploid) x V. elliottii (diploid) crosses by in ovulo and in ovary culture gave a few presumably hybrid seed, but at a rate no greater than when normal crossing procedures are used.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Phaseolus acutifolius ; Phaseolus vulgaris ; Common and tepary beans ; Interspecific hybridization ; Congruity and recurrent backcrosses ; In-vitro embryo culture ; Gene introgression
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Cultivated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius A. Gray) genotypes possessing desirable agronomic traits were hybridized. The F1 hybrids were backcrossed twice with the common bean (i.e., recurrent backcrossing). Also, alternate backcrosses with common and tepary beans (i.e., congruity backcrossing) were carried out. Embryo culture was necessary for all initial interspecific crosses, and its requirement was proportionally lower when the common bean was used as the recurrent parent and as the last parent of congruity backcrosses. Modification of the embryo culture technique was necessary to produce congruity hybrids. Effects of both tepary and common bean genotypes on the success rate of hybridization were observed. Tepary accession G 40001 and common bean cultivar ICA Pijao facilitated interspecies hybridization. Growth of hybrid embryos before rescue, recovery of mature hybrid plants, and the vigor and fertility of F1 hybrids all increased with increased recurrent and congruity backcrosses and intermatings between male-sterile F1 and selected fertile F2 plants of the third and fifth congruity backcrosses. Introgression of tepary genes was verified by means of seed protein electrophoretic analysis and morphological markers. The results suggest that congruity backcrossing can help to gradually reduce or overcome P. vulgaris x P. acutifolius hybridization barriers such as genotype incompatibility, early embryo abortion, hybrid sterility, and lower frequencies of hybridization.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Keywords: Allozyme polymorphism ; linkage disequilibrium ; wine cellar and field populations ; Drosophila melanogaster
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Over three years, theAdh and α-Gpdh loci have been studied in two cellar populations ofDrosophila melanogaster and in two field populations which were each near to one of the cellars. Analyses of gene frequencies indicate that the divergence among subpopulations is greater in theAdh locus than in the α-Gpdh locus. Selection for or againstAdh S allele acting on theIn(2L)t inversion influences of the α-Gpdh alleles. This phenomenon may contribute to explain the maintenance of theAdh and α-Gpdh polymorphism and of theIn(2L)t inversion.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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