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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Helianthus annuus ; Sunflower mutant ; Palmitic acid ; Inheritance ; Fatty acid composition
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  Sunflower genotypes with increased levels of palmitic acid (C16 : 0) in the seed oil could be useful for food and industrial applications. The objective of the present study was to determine the inheritance of the high C16 : 0 content in the sunflower mutant line CAS-5 (〉25% of the total oil fatty acids). This mutant was reciprocally crossed with the lines HA-89 (5.7% C16 : 0) and BSD-2-691 (5.4% C16 : 0), the latter being the parental line from which CAS-5 was isolated. No maternal effect for the C16 : 0 content was observed from the analysis of F1 seeds in any of the crosses. The inheritance study of the C16 : 0 content in F1, F2 and BC1F1 seeds from the crosses of CAS-5 with its parental line BSD-2-691 indicated that the segregation fitted a model of two alleles at one locus with partial dominance for the low content. The analysis of the fatty acid composition in the F2 populations from the crosses with HA-89 revealed a segregation fitting a ratio 19 : 38 : 7 for low (〈7.5%), middle (7.5–15%), and high (〉25%) C16 : 0 content, respectively. This segregation was explained on the basis of three loci (P1, P2, P3) each having two alleles showing partial dominance for low content. The genotypes with a high C16 : 0 content were homozygous for the recessive allele p1 and for at least one of the other two recessive alleles, p2 or p3. This model was further confirmed with the analysis of the F3 and the BC1F1 generations. It was concluded that both the recessive alleles p2 and p3 were already present in the BSD-2-691 line, the allele p1 being the result of a mutation from P1. This genetic study will facilitate breeding strategies associated with the incorporation of the high C16 : 0 trait into agronomically acceptable sunflower hybrids.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Sunflower ; Helianthus annuus ; High palmitic acid ; High stearic acid ; Epistatic interaction ; Inheritance ; Oil quality
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  Two sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) mutants with high concentrations of saturated fatty acids in their seed oil have been identified and studied extensively. The mutant line CAS-5 has high concentrations of palmitic acid (C16:0) (〉25% compared with 7% in standard sunflower seed oil) and low-C18:0 values (3%). CAS-3 is characterized by its high levels of stearic acid (C18:0) (〉22% compared with 4% in standard sunflower seed oil) and a low-C16:0 content (5%). CAS-5 also possesses elevated levels of palmitoleic acid (C16:1) (〉5%), which is absent in standard sunflower seed oil. The objective of this study was to determine the relationships between the loci controlling the high-C16:0 and the high-C18:0 traits in these mutants. Plants of both mutants were reciprocally crossed. Gas chromatographic analyses of fatty acids from the seed oil of F1, F2, F3 and the BC1F1 to CAS-5 generations indicated that the loci controlling the high-C16:0 trait exerted an epistatic effect over the loci responsible for the high-C18:0 character. As a result, the phenotypic combination containing both the high-C16:0 levels of CAS-5 and the high-C18:0 levels of CAS-3 was not possible. However, phenotypes with a saturated fatty acid content of 44% (34.5% C16:0+9.5% C18:0) were identified in the F3 generation. These are the highest saturated (C16:0 and C18:0) levels reported so far in sunflower seed oil. When F3 C16:0 segregating generations in both a high- and a low-C18:0 background were compared, the high-C16:1 levels were not expressed as expected in the high-C18:0 background (CAS-3 background). In this case, the C16:1 content decreased to values below 1.5%, compared with 〉5% in a low-C18:0 background. As the stearoyl-ACP desaturase has been reported to catalyze the desaturation from C16:0-ACP to C16:1-ACP, these results suggested that a decrease in its activity was involved in the accumulation of C18:0 in the high-C18:0 mutant CAS-3.
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