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  • 1
    ISSN: 0930-7516
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Industrial Chemistry and Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A turntable dynamometer has been constructed for the accurate measurement of power input and mixing applications in bench stirred tank reactors. The main feature of this device is a pneumatic bearing with complementary conical parts. The conical pneumatic bearing permitted to apply eccentric loads without affecting its stability. The static friction torque in the pneumatic bearing was very small, 4 × 10-4 Nm, and can be neglected in the experimental ranges of measured torques, i.e. from 5 × 10-3 to 2.21 Nm. In accordance with the instrumentation used, the deviations obtained with the apparatus are less than 10% at low torque readings. At moderate torques, deviations lower than 1% are routinely obtained. Several power input measurements show that the obtained data scatter is lower than 2.5%. The power input response in the turbulent regime is in agreement with dimensional analysis: the power input depends on the cube of the impeller speed. In addition, data obtained with a turbine impeller under ungassed conditions agree with the predictions of a published correlation, which takes into account several geometrical parameters.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0930-7516
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Industrial Chemistry and Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The kinetics of the pseudohomogeneous liquid phase synthesis of a high molecular weight ester in a stirred tank reactor using cobalt chloride as catalyst has been studied at various temperatures, catalyst concentrations, and acid/alcohol molar ratios. A kinetic model has been determined that predicts the experimental results quite well.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0930-7516
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Industrial Chemistry and Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Intermig impellers have been postulated as very efficient for mixing highly viscous non-Newtonian fluids (such as xanthan and mycelial broths). However, no formal characterisation has been published and no fair comparisons have been made, based on accurate power drawn measurements and using equal number of impeller stages and equal diameter, if compared (for example) with the performance of Rushton turbines. Characterisation of the shape, size, and evolution of the well-mixed zones or “caverns” were correlated with power drawn, for single and dual Rushton turbines and for one- as well as two-stage Intermig unslotted impellers. Cavern evolution studies were carried out in a mixing tank (diameter=0.205 m, H/T=1.6) equipped with an accurate air bearing dynamometer. Carbopol 940 (0.25 wt.-%) was used as a model, transparent fluid. Impeller to tank diameter ratio was 0.53 for both impellers. Caverns were visualised by injecting methylene blue in the well-mixed zones. A single Rushton turbine developed larger caverns if compared with one-stage Intermig of the same diameter under power drawn below 1.5 kW m-3. At higher power drawn, both impellers behaved very similarly, reaching a limit in cavern volume of about 40% of the total liquid volume, even at very high (20 kW m03) power drawn. A similar trend characterised dual combinations: below 3 kW m-3, dual Rushtons gave larger cavern volume if compared with the performance of two-stage Intermigs. In either case, power drawn higher than 3 kW m03 was sufficient to mix more than 90% of the liquid volume. The presence or absence of the slot in the Intermig did not influence cavern development. Experiments with a smaller if compared with those obtained with the larger Intermig (D/T = 0.53).
    Additional Material: 11 Ill.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0930-7516
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Industrial Chemistry and Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A Comparative study of different Lewis acids (metal chlorides of valences, I, II, III, IV) has been made. These catalysts are used in the synthesis of a high molecular weight ester in a stirred tank reactor using octanoic acid and n-octyl alcohol as reactants. It was found that the best efficiency of the formatted ester (n-octyl octanoate) was obtained with ferric chloride. This could be explained by the high electronegativity and the existence of free d orbitals in the Lewis acid.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0930-7516
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Industrial Chemistry and Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: General simple criteria to predict and analyze the influence on trickle-bed reactors behavior of three phenomena, namely, plug flow deviations, external wetting efficiency and external mass transfer resistance, are developed. Criteria predictions are compared with results arising from a comprehensive mathematical model widely employed to describe trickle-bed reactors behavior and with other particular criteria reported in the literature. Present criteria applications to different sets of experimental data exemplify their practical utility for various actual situations and verify their validity. Besides, they constitute simple tools to diagnose detrimental on trickle-bed reactors operation.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0930-7516
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Industrial Chemistry and Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The development and optimization of the synthesis of an analogue of sperm whale oil have been carried out. The product is an ester with characteristics similar to those of natural sperm whale oil. A central composite design was applied in the synthesis of this fine chemical. The variables selected for the present study are reaction temperature, initial concentration of catalyst and working pressure. Temperature is the most significant factor in the esterification process, and its influence is positive. Pressure influence can be neglected, and the catalyst concentration has a positive influence on the process. Depending on the temperature value, the influence of the interactions can be more important than that of the other two main effects, pressure and catalyst concentration. Response surface models have been found adequate to represent the yield of ester. The commercial quality of the synthesized product is very similar to that of natural spermaceti. Because of its low cost, this synthesis process is considered, from an economical point of view, very attractive.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0930-7516
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Industrial Chemistry and Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Experimental data are reported for ion exchange equilibria of binary systems on Amberlite IR-120 resin, at different temperatures and total ionic concentrations in aqueous solutions. These systems exhibit non-ideal behaviour in both phases, and the equilibrium characterization has been based on the law of mass action, using Wilson and Meisssner, and Kusik equations to correlate the activity coefficients in the resin and aqueous solutions, respectively. Equilibrium constants, standard thermodynamic properties (Gibbs free enthalpy changes, enthalpy and entropy) and Wilson binary parameters were obtained as functions of temperature.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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