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  • 1
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    Munich: Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute (CESifo)
    Publication Date: 2017-08-09
    Description: This paper reviews aspects of the constitution making process in Iceland after the financial collapse of 2008, emphasizing the differences between the provisional constitution of 1944 when Iceland separated unilaterally from Nazi-occupied Denmark and Denmark’s 1849 constitution which served, with notable exceptions, as the prototype for Iceland’s 1944 constitution. The comparison and contrast between the Icelandic and Danish constitutions invites a comparison also between Iceland’s 1944 constitution with the new post-crash constitution from 2011 accepted by two thirds of the voters in a national referendum in 2012 and waiting to be ratified twice by a reluctant Parliament. Against this comparative background, the paper proceeds to discuss political and procedural aspects of Iceland´s constitutional reform project, and concludes by proposing lessons to be learned from Iceland´s experience thus far.
    Keywords: K10 ; ddc:330 ; constitution making ; democracy ; Iceland ; Denmark
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 2
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    Munich: Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute (CESifo)
    Publication Date: 2016-05-23
    Description: This paper reports recent events in Iceland where the political agents of oligarchs didn t even bother to try to influence, let alone contest, a national referendum on a new constitution because, if they didn t like the result, they would simply find ways to nullify the outcome ex post. The paper reviews and explains the making of Iceland's crowd-sourced constitution bill from 2009 to 2014, and also offers an explanation as to why the bill failed to be passed by Parliament, addressing various criticisms leveled against the bill along the way. It needs to be emphasized that these criticisms, whether well founded or not (and they are not), are irrelevant because Parliament held a national referendum on 20 October 2012 in which the bill and its key individual provisions were accepted by an overwhelming majority of the voters. A democratic nation cannot under any circumstances permit the outcome of national elections, let alone a constitutional referendum, to be fixed ex post, but this is what the Icelandic Parliament is at present trying to do, flirting with a farewell to democracy.
    Keywords: K10 ; ddc:330 ; constitution ; democracy ; Iceland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 3
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    Munich: Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute (CESifo)
    Publication Date: 2015-05-22
    Description: This paper reviews economic developments in Iceland following its financial collapse in 2008, focusing on causes and consequences of the crash. The review is presented in the context of the Nordic region, with broad comparisons also with developments elsewhere on the periphery of Europe, in Greece, Ireland, and Portugal. In some ways, however, Iceland resembles Italy, Japan, and Russia more than it resembles its Nordic neighbors or even Ireland. The paper also considers the uncertain prospects for reforms and restoration as well as the possible effects of the crash on social, human, and real capital and on long-run economic growth.
    Keywords: G01 ; O40 ; ddc:330 ; Iceland ; financial crisis ; social capital
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 4
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    Munich: Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute (CESifo)
    Publication Date: 2016-08-20
    Description: To understand Iceland’s political situation, it is necessary to consider the historical background to the post-crash constitutional revision process launched in 2009. Also, the paper offers a brief account of some aspects of the constitution-making process during 2010-2013, including the work of the Constituent Assembly. Further, the paper describes Parliament’s ongoing attempt to undermine the substance of the constitutional bill accepted by two thirds of the voters in the 2012 referendum. A national parliament cannot, without undermining its own legitimacy, allow the results of a constitutional referendum to be changed after the fact, let alone ignored, even if the referendum was advisory.
    Keywords: K10 ; ddc:330 ; legitimacy ; democracy ; constitutions ; Iceland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 5
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    Munich: Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute (CESifo)
    Publication Date: 2016-08-20
    Description: This paper maps the use of digital tools in the Icelandic constitutional revision process of 2011 and discusses its aftermath in subsequent years. Although causal links between the digital elements of the process and the content and fate of the constitutional bill are impossible to establish, an analysis of the Icelandic constitution-writing efforts as ‘digital democracy’ reveals some important lessons. High-quality input into constitution-making processes through digital participation is possible, but the very threat of this to vested institutional interests also makes consensus on and enforcement of the ‘rules of the game’ of paramount importance.
    Keywords: K10 ; ddc:330 ; digital tools ; democracy ; constitutions ; Iceland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 6
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    Munich: Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute (CESifo)
    Publication Date: 2015-06-13
    Description: Excessive concentration increases national risk in an uncertain world. This paper views economic and political diversification as an essential aspect of national risk management aimed at promoting efficiency, growth, and welfare. The paper first presents economic and political diversification side by side in a cross-country framework and discusses how they interact and encourage more stable long-run economic growth. Thereafter, the paper considers Iceland as a case study of the intertwined effects of insufficient economic and insufficient political diversification. Dominated for decades by the fishing industry, the Icelandic economy is more diversified than before following the financial crisis of 2008 with tourism now generating more foreign exchange than fisheries. The paper ends with some general policy conclusions.
    Keywords: F43 ; O13 ; O43 ; ddc:330 ; diversification ; concentration ; democracy ; Iceland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 7
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    Munich: Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute (CESifo)
    Publication Date: 2019-12-04
    Description: Unsustainable accumulation of debt precedes financial crises. The recent Western financial crisis was no exception in this regard. The external debt of Greece, Iceland, Ireland, and Spain increased exponentially, in Iceland at a rate higher than the rate of interest on foreign debt. The Ponzi scheme that played out in Iceland begs the question why a country would set out on a path that could lead to a financial crisis. We address this question and describe the private incentives faced by bankers, financiers, politicians and others. In particular, we show how private incentives and a culture that valued financial gains above all else collided with socially desirable outcomes. The root of the problem in Iceland as well as in other crisis countries was a failure at the state level to align private incentives with what was socially prudent, a failure due, at least in Iceland, to a combination of mistakes, incompetence and what can only be called corruption. Furthermore, misplaced belief in a market economy where morals and ethics play no role paved the way to serious lapses in accounting and in the operation of the banks.
    Keywords: E44 ; G01 ; G41 ; ddc:330 ; financial crises ; corruption ; culture ; Iceland ; quality of governance ; rent seeking
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 8
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    Munich: Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute (CESifo)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-27
    Description: This study discusses the economic, political, and judicial aftermath of Iceland´s financial collapse in 2008. It considers lessons learned, or not learned, with emphasis on unsettled issues concerning the distribution of incomes and wealth, banking, and politics. The study makes three main points. First, the measurement of income flows and living standards needs to be adjusted in two respects. Second, since the crisis, Ireland has made a significantly stronger recovery than Iceland in terms of per capita income. Third, Iceland´s economic recovery from the crisis is marred by a visible deterioration of various components of the country´s social capital.
    Keywords: G01 ; ddc:330 ; financial crisis ; social capital ; Iceland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2009-12-18
    Description: Effects of susceptibility variants may depend on from which parent they are inherited. Although many associations between sequence variants and human traits have been discovered through genome-wide associations, the impact of parental origin has largely been ignored. Here we show that for 38,167 Icelanders genotyped using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chips, the parental origin of most alleles can be determined. For this we used a combination of genealogy and long-range phasing. We then focused on SNPs that associate with diseases and are within 500 kilobases of known imprinted genes. Seven independent SNP associations were examined. Five-one with breast cancer, one with basal-cell carcinoma and three with type 2 diabetes-have parental-origin-specific associations. These variants are located in two genomic regions, 11p15 and 7q32, each harbouring a cluster of imprinted genes. Furthermore, we observed a novel association between the SNP rs2334499 at 11p15 and type 2 diabetes. Here the allele that confers risk when paternally inherited is protective when maternally transmitted. We identified a differentially methylated CTCF-binding site at 11p15 and demonstrated correlation of rs2334499 with decreased methylation of that site.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3746295/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3746295/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kong, Augustine -- Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur -- Masson, Gisli -- Thorleifsson, Gudmar -- Sulem, Patrick -- Besenbacher, Soren -- Jonasdottir, Aslaug -- Sigurdsson, Asgeir -- Kristinsson, Kari Th -- Jonasdottir, Adalbjorg -- Frigge, Michael L -- Gylfason, Arnaldur -- Olason, Pall I -- Gudjonsson, Sigurjon A -- Sverrisson, Sverrir -- Stacey, Simon N -- Sigurgeirsson, Bardur -- Benediktsdottir, Kristrun R -- Sigurdsson, Helgi -- Jonsson, Thorvaldur -- Benediktsson, Rafn -- Olafsson, Jon H -- Johannsson, Oskar Th -- Hreidarsson, Astradur B -- Sigurdsson, Gunnar -- DIAGRAM Consortium -- Ferguson-Smith, Anne C -- Gudbjartsson, Daniel F -- Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur -- Stefansson, Kari -- 077016/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 090532/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- G9723500/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- K08 AR055688/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- MC_U106179471/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MC_U106179474/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MC_U127592696/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- R01 DK029867/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2009 Dec 17;462(7275):868-74. doi: 10.1038/nature08625.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉deCODE genetics, Sturlugata 8, 101 Reykjavik, Iceland. kong@decode.is〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20016592" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Alleles ; Binding Sites ; Breast Neoplasms/genetics ; Carcinoma, Basal Cell/genetics ; Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11/genetics ; Chromosomes, Human, Pair 7/genetics ; DNA Methylation/genetics ; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics ; *Fathers ; Female ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease/*genetics ; Genome, Human/genetics ; Genomic Imprinting/genetics ; Haplotypes ; Humans ; Iceland ; Male ; *Mothers ; Pedigree ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/*genetics ; Repressor Proteins/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2010-10-29
    Description: Meiotic recombinations contribute to genetic diversity by yielding new combinations of alleles. Recently, high-resolution recombination maps were inferred from high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data using linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns that capture historical recombination events. The use of these maps has been demonstrated by the identification of recombination hotspots and associated motifs, and the discovery that the PRDM9 gene affects the proportion of recombinations occurring at hotspots. However, these maps provide no information about individual or sex differences. Moreover, locus-specific demographic factors like natural selection can bias LD-based estimates of recombination rate. Existing genetic maps based on family data avoid these shortcomings, but their resolution is limited by relatively few meioses and a low density of markers. Here we used genome-wide SNP data from 15,257 parent-offspring pairs to construct the first recombination maps based on directly observed recombinations with a resolution that is effective down to 10 kilobases (kb). Comparing male and female maps reveals that about 15% of hotspots in one sex are specific to that sex. Although male recombinations result in more shuffling of exons within genes, female recombinations generate more new combinations of nearby genes. We discover novel associations between recombination characteristics of individuals and variants in the PRDM9 gene and we identify new recombination hotspots. Comparisons of our maps with two LD-based maps inferred from data of HapMap populations of Utah residents with ancestry from northern and western Europe (CEU) and Yoruba in Ibadan, Nigeria (YRI) reveal population differences previously masked by noise and map differences at regions previously described as targets of natural selection.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kong, Augustine -- Thorleifsson, Gudmar -- Gudbjartsson, Daniel F -- Masson, Gisli -- Sigurdsson, Asgeir -- Jonasdottir, Aslaug -- Walters, G Bragi -- Jonasdottir, Adalbjorg -- Gylfason, Arnaldur -- Kristinsson, Kari Th -- Gudjonsson, Sigurjon A -- Frigge, Michael L -- Helgason, Agnar -- Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur -- Stefansson, Kari -- England -- Nature. 2010 Oct 28;467(7319):1099-103. doi: 10.1038/nature09525.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉deCODE genetics, Sturlugata 8, 101 Reykjavik, Iceland. kong@decode.is〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20981099" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Alleles ; Chromosomes, Human/*genetics ; DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics ; Europe/ethnology ; Exons/genetics ; Female ; Genetics, Population ; Haplotypes/genetics ; Heterozygote ; Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase/genetics ; Humans ; Linkage Disequilibrium/genetics ; Male ; Meiosis/genetics ; Nigeria/ethnology ; Pedigree ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics ; Recombination, Genetic/*genetics ; Sample Size ; Selection, Genetic/genetics ; *Sex Characteristics ; Utah
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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