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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2011-08-16
    Description: The design of large area transition radiation detectors for highly relativistic particles can be greatly simplified if plastic foam radiators are employed. Using electron beams with energies 1-9 GeV at the Cornell synchrotron, we have studied the properties of a large variety of transition radiators consisting of commercially available foam materials. In most cases, a measurable transition radiation signal has been observed, but only a few materials have been found to be suitable for practical purposes. The observed radiation yield is in these cases very similar to that of equivalent multifoil radiators. A detailed discussion is given of the particle detection efficiency that can be obtained with high yield foam radiators.
    Keywords: INSTRUMENTATION AND PHOTOGRAPHY
    Type: Nuclear Instruments and Methods; 123; 1975
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Transition-radiation detectors have been used in several recent cosmic-ray experiments for particle identification at energies E/mc-squared of at least about 1000. In order to optimize the design of such detectors and to use them for energy measurements over a broad energy range, it is necessary to study the details of the transition-radiation process. Experimental results are presented which test the theoretical predictions more precisely and at higher energies than in previous experiments. The dependence of the interference pattern in the frequency spectrum on the radiator dimensions is studied, and the total transition-radiation yield generated by electrons in various radiators is measured over a very wide energy range, from 5 to 300 GeV. The significance of the individual experimental parameters in the design of transition radiation detectors is reviewed, and the characteristics of transition-radiation detectors capable of measuring particle energies over the range E/mc-squared from about 300 to 100,000 are discussed.
    Keywords: INSTRUMENTATION AND PHOTOGRAPHY
    Type: International Cosmic Ray Conference; August 13-26, 1977; Plovdiv; Bulgaria
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The spectrum of cosmic-ray electrons has been measured with an instrument that combines a transition-radiation detector with a shower detector. The transition-radiation detector provides unique identification of individual electrons and good discrimination against protons. At the same time, it allows the construction of a large-area instrument (0.48 sq m ? ster) and consequently makes possible a measurement of improved statistical accuracy. The instrument has been calibrated with electron beams of 5-300 GeV at Fermilab, thus eliminating energy-dependent biases. A first balloon flight yielded 30 hours of data at an altitude of 5 g/sq cm. The design of the instrument is described, along with the accelerator calibrations and the analysis of the balloon flight data. The spectrum of electrons is found to be significantly steeper than that of protons over the whole energy range.
    Keywords: INSTRUMENTATION AND PHOTOGRAPHY
    Type: International Cosmic Ray Conference; August 13-26, 1977; Plovdiv; Bulgaria
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Transition radiation detectors consisting of sandwiches of plastic foam radiators and multiwire proportional chambers can be used to identify cosmic ray particles with energies gamma ? E/mc-squared is greater than 10 to the 3rd and to measure their energy in the region gamma is roughly equal to 10 to the 3rd
    Keywords: INSTRUMENTATION AND PHOTOGRAPHY
    Type: International Cosmic Ray Conference; August 15-29, 1975; Munich
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