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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The AVIRIS instrument has been designed to do high spectral resolution remote sensing of the Earth. Utilizing both silicon and indium antimonide line array detectors, AVIRIS covers the spectral region from 0.41 to 2.45 microns in 10-nm bands. It was designed to fly aboard NASA's U-2 and ER-2 aircraft, where it will simulate the performance of future spacecraft instrumentation. Flying at an altitude of 20 km, it has an instantaneous field of view of 20 m and views a swath over 10 km wide. With an ability to record 40 minutes of data, it can, during a single flight, capture 500 km of flight line.
    Keywords: INSTRUMENTATION AND PHOTOGRAPHY
    Type: Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS). A Description of the Sensor, Ground Data Processing Facility, Laboratory Calibration, and First Results; Airborne Visible(Inf
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A UHF radiometer, operating at a frequency of 800 MHz, was modified to provide an integral, three frequency voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) circuit in the radio frequency (RF) head. The VSWR circuit provides readings of power transmission at the antenna-material interface with an accuracy of plus or minus 5 percent. The power transmission readings are numerically equal to the emissivity of the material under observation. Knowledge of material emissivity is useful in the interpretation of subsurface apparent temperatures obtained on phantom models of biological tissue. The emissivities of phantom models consisting of lean beefsteak were found to lie in the range 0.623 to 0.779, depending on moisture content. Radiometric measurements performed on instrumented phantoms showed that the radiometer was capable of sensing small temperature changes occurring at depths of at least 19 to 30 mm. This is consistent with previously generated data which showed that the radiometer could sense temperatures at a depth of 38 mm.
    Keywords: INSTRUMENTATION AND PHOTOGRAPHY
    Type: NASA-CR-137827
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2017-06-26
    Description: System for measuring phase and frequency fluctuations of high precision oscillators
    Keywords: INSTRUMENTATION AND PHOTOGRAPHY
    Type: NASA-CR-80364
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-06-06
    Description: We demonstrated that, in our model, non-linear interactions between planetary waves (PW) and migrating tides could generate in the upper mesosphere non-migrating tides with amplitudes comparable to those observed. The Numerical Spectral Model (NSM) we employ incorporates Hines Doppler Spread Parameterization for small-scale gravity waves (GW), which affect in numerous ways the dynamics of the mesosphere. The latitudinal (seasonal) reversals in the temperature and zonal circulation, which are largely caused by GWs (Lindzen, 198l), filter the PWs and contribute to the instabilities that generate the PWs. The PWs in turn are amplified by the momentum deposition of upward propagating GWs, as are the migrating tides. The GWs thus affect significantly the migrating tides and PWs, the building blocks of non-migrating tides. In the present paper, we demonstrate that GW filtering also contributes to the non-linear coupling between PWs and tides. Two computer experiments are presented to make this point. In one, we simply turn off the GW source to show the effect. In the second case, we demonstrate the effect by selectively suppressing the momentum source for the m = 0 non-migrating tides.
    Keywords: Geophysics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-06-06
    Description: We discuss results from a modeling study with our Numerical Spectral Model (NSM) that specifically deals with the non-migrating tides generated in the mesosphere. The NSM extends from the ground to the thermosphere, incorporates Hines' Doppler Spread Parameterization for small-scale gravity waves (GWs), and it describes the major dynamical features of the atmosphere including the wave driven equatorial oscillations (QBO and SAO), and the seasonal variations of tides and planetary waves. Accounting solely for the excitation sources of the solar migrating tides, the NSM generates through dynamical interactions also non-migrating tides in the mesosphere that are comparable in magnitude to those observed. Large non-migrating tides are produced in the diurnal and semi-diurnal oscillations for the zonal mean (m = 0) and in the semidiurnal oscillation for m = 1. In general, significant eastward and westward propagating tides are generated for all the zonal wave numbers m = 1 to 4. To identify the cause, the NSM is run without the solar heating for the zonal mean (m = 0), and the amplitudes of the resulting non-migrating tides are then negligibly small. In this case, the planetary waves are artificially suppressed, which are generated in the NSM through instabilities. This leads to the conclusion that the non-migrating tides are generated through non-linear interactions between planetary waves and migrating tides, as Forbes et al. and Talaat and Liberman had proposed. In an accompanying paper, we present results from numerical experiments, which indicate that gravity wave filtering contributes significantly to produce the non-linear coupling that is involved.
    Keywords: Geophysics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2004-12-03
    Description: This chapter is concerned with two types of radiometric measurements essential to verify atmospheric correction algorithms and to calibrate vicariously satellite ocean color sensors. The first type is a photometric measurement of the direct solar beam to determine the optical thickness of the atmosphere. The intensity of the solar beam can be measured directly, or obtained indirectly from measurements of diffuse global upper hemispheric irradiance. The second type is a measurement of the solar aureole and sky radiance distribution using a CCD camera, or a scanning radiometer viewing in and perpendicular to the solar principal plane. From the two types of measurements, the optical properties of aerosols, highly variable in space and time, can be derived. Because of the high variability, the aerosol properties should be known at the time of satellite overpass. Atmospheric optics measurements, however, are not easy to perform at sea, from a ship or any platform. This complicates the measurement protocols and data analysis. Some instrumentation cannot be deployed at sea, and is limited to island and coastal sites. In the following, measurement protocols are described for radiometers commonly used to measure direct atmospheric transmittance and sky radiance, namely standard sun photometers, fast-rotating shadow-band radiometers, automated sky scanning systems, and CCD cameras. Methods and procedures to analyze and quality control the data are discussed, as well as proper measurement strategies for evaluation of atmospheric correction algorithms and satellite-derived ocean color.
    Keywords: Geophysics
    Type: In Situ Aerosol Optical Thinkness Collected by the SIMBIOS Program (1997-2000): Protocols, and and Data QC and Analysis; 26-42; NASA/TM-2001-209982
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2006-02-14
    Description: The Sacramento Peak Observatory Fast Microphotometer translates an optical system that includes a laser and photodiode detector across the film to scan the Y direction. A stepping motor moves the film gate in the X direction. This arrangement affords high positional accuracy, low noise (0.002 RMS density units), modest speed (5000 points/second), large dynamic range (4.5 density units), high stability (0.005 density units), and low scattered light. The Fast Microphotometer is interfaced to the host computer by a 6502 microprocessor.
    Keywords: INSTRUMENTATION AND PHOTOGRAPHY
    Type: NASA. Goddard Space Flight Center Astron. Microdensitometry Conf.; p 243-254
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: AVIRIS is a facility consisting of a flight system, a ground data system, a calibration facility, and a full-time operations team. The facility was developed by JPL under funding from NASA. NASA also provides funding for operations and maintenance. The flight system is a whisk-broom imager that acquires data in 224 narrow, contiguous spectral bands covering the solar reflected portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. It is flown aboard the NASA high altitude ER-2 research aircraft. The ground data system is a facility dedicated to the processing and distribution of data acquired by AVIRIS. It operates year round at JPL. The calibration facility consists of a calibration laboratory at JPL and a suite of field instruments and procedures for performing inflight calibration of AVIRIS. A small team of engineers, technicians, and scientists supports a yearly operations schedule that includes 6 months of flight operations, 6 months of routine ground maintenance of the flight system, and year-round data processing and distribution. Details of the AVIRIS system, its performance history, and future plans are described.
    Keywords: INSTRUMENTATION AND PHOTOGRAPHY
    Type: Remote Sensing of Environment (ISSN 0034-4257); 44; 2-3; p. 127-143.
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: An upgraded version of AVIRIS, an airborne imaging spectrometer based on a whiskbroom-type scanner coupled via optical fibers to four dispersive spectrometers, that has been in operation since 1987 is described. Emphasis is placed on specific AVIRIS subsystems including foreoptics, fiber optics, and an in-flight reference source; spectrometers and detector dewars; a scan drive mechanism; a signal chain; digital electronics; a tape recorder; calibration systems; and ground support requirements.
    Keywords: INSTRUMENTATION AND PHOTOGRAPHY
    Type: In: Infrared technology XVII; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, July 22-26, 1991 (A93-38376 15-35); p. 164-175.
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2011-08-16
    Description: A ten-channel analog switch has been developed as a sample and shape circuit for signals used as inputs to a logarithmic pulse height recording system. The circuit employs a field effect transistor as the switching element. Switching transients are reduced to approximately 2 mV by adding to the gated signal an inverted transient generated by an identical circuit with no signal applied. The circuit is linear to 2% from 3 mV to 10 V.
    Keywords: INSTRUMENTATION AND PHOTOGRAPHY
    Type: Nuclear Instruments and Methods; 121; 1974
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