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  • Humidity response  (2)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Keywords: Humidity response ; Stomata ; Transpiration ; Water potential ; Water stress
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Short-term (hours) changes in plant water status were induced in hazel (Corylus avellana L.) by changing the evaporative demand on a major portion of the shoot while maintaining a branch in a constant environment. Stomatal conductance of leaves on the branch was influenced little by these short-term changes in water status even with changes in leaf water potential as great as 8 bars. Long-term (days) changes in plant water status were imposed by soil drying cycles. Stomatal conductance progessively decreased with increases in long-term water stress. Stomata still responded to humidity with long-term water stress but the range of the conductance response decreased. Threshold responses of stomata to leaf water potential were not observed with either short-term or long-term changes in plant water status even when leaves wilted. It is suggested that concurrent measurements of plant water status may not be sufficient for explaining stomatal and other plant responses to drought.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: Evaporation ; Aerodynamic conductance ; Canopy conductance ; Humidity response ; Soil water
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Canopy-scale evaporation rate (E) and derived surface and aerodynamic conductances for the transfer of water vapour (gs and ga, respectively) are reviewed for coniferous forests and grasslands. Despite the extremes of canopy structure, the two vegetation types have similar maximum hourly evaporation rates (E max) and maximum surface conductances (gsmax) (medians = 0.46 mm h-1 and 22 mm s-1). However, on a daily basis, median E max of coniferous forest (4.0 mm d-1) is significantly lower than that of grassland (4.6 mm d-1). Additionally, a representative value of ga for coniferous forest (200 mm s-1) is an order of magnitude more than the corresponding value for grassland (25 mm s-1). The proportional sensitivity of E, calculated by the Penman-Monteith equation, to changes in gs is 〉0.7 for coniferous forest, but as low as 0.3 for grassland. The proportional sensitivity of E to changes in ga is generally ±0.15 or less. Boundary-line relationships between gs and light and air saturation deficit (D) vary considerably. Attainment of gsmax occurs at a much lower irradiance for coniferous forest than for grassland (15 versus about 45% of full sunlight). Relationships between gs and D measured above the canopy appear to be fairly uniform for coniferous forest, but are variable for grassland. More uniform relationships may be found for surfaces with relatively small ga, like grassland, by using D at the evaporating surface (D0) as the independent variable rather than D at a reference point above the surface. An analytical expression is given for determining D0 from measurable quantities. Evaporation rate also depends on the availability of water in the root zone. Below a critical value of soil water storage, the ratio of evaporation rate to the available energy tends to decrease sharply and linearly with decreasing soil water content. At the lowest value of soil water content, this ratio declines by up to a factor of 4 from the non-soil-water-limiting plateau. Knowledge about functional rooting depth of different plant species remains rather limited. Ignorance of this important variable makes it generally difficult to obtain accurate estimates of seasonal evaporation from terrestrial ecosystems.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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