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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2011-03-25
    Description: Arising from M. A. Nowak, C. E. Tarnita & E. O. Wilson 466, 1057-1062 (2010); Nowak et al. reply. Nowak et al. argue that inclusive fitness theory has been of little value in explaining the natural world, and that it has led to negligible progress in explaining the evolution of eusociality. However, we believe that their arguments are based upon a misunderstanding of evolutionary theory and a misrepresentation of the empirical literature. We will focus our comments on three general issues.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3836173/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3836173/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Abbot, Patrick -- Abe, Jun -- Alcock, John -- Alizon, Samuel -- Alpedrinha, Joao A C -- Andersson, Malte -- Andre, Jean-Baptiste -- van Baalen, Minus -- Balloux, Francois -- Balshine, Sigal -- Barton, Nick -- Beukeboom, Leo W -- Biernaskie, Jay M -- Bilde, Trine -- Borgia, Gerald -- Breed, Michael -- Brown, Sam -- Bshary, Redouan -- Buckling, Angus -- Burley, Nancy T -- Burton-Chellew, Max N -- Cant, Michael A -- Chapuisat, Michel -- Charnov, Eric L -- Clutton-Brock, Tim -- Cockburn, Andrew -- Cole, Blaine J -- Colegrave, Nick -- Cosmides, Leda -- Couzin, Iain D -- Coyne, Jerry A -- Creel, Scott -- Crespi, Bernard -- Curry, Robert L -- Dall, Sasha R X -- Day, Troy -- Dickinson, Janis L -- Dugatkin, Lee Alan -- El Mouden, Claire -- Emlen, Stephen T -- Evans, Jay -- Ferriere, Regis -- Field, Jeremy -- Foitzik, Susanne -- Foster, Kevin -- Foster, William A -- Fox, Charles W -- Gadau, Juergen -- Gandon, Sylvain -- Gardner, Andy -- Gardner, Michael G -- Getty, Thomas -- Goodisman, Michael A D -- Grafen, Alan -- Grosberg, Rick -- Grozinger, Christina M -- Gouyon, Pierre-Henri -- Gwynne, Darryl -- Harvey, Paul H -- Hatchwell, Ben J -- Heinze, Jurgen -- Helantera, Heikki -- Helms, Ken R -- Hill, Kim -- Jiricny, Natalie -- Johnstone, Rufus A -- Kacelnik, Alex -- Kiers, E Toby -- Kokko, Hanna -- Komdeur, Jan -- Korb, Judith -- Kronauer, Daniel -- Kummerli, Rolf -- Lehmann, Laurent -- Linksvayer, Timothy A -- Lion, Sebastien -- Lyon, Bruce -- Marshall, James A R -- McElreath, Richard -- Michalakis, Yannis -- Michod, Richard E -- Mock, Douglas -- Monnin, Thibaud -- Montgomerie, Robert -- Moore, Allen J -- Mueller, Ulrich G -- Noe, Ronald -- Okasha, Samir -- Pamilo, Pekka -- Parker, Geoff A -- Pedersen, Jes S -- Pen, Ido -- Pfennig, David -- Queller, David C -- Rankin, Daniel J -- Reece, Sarah E -- Reeve, Hudson K -- Reuter, Max -- Roberts, Gilbert -- Robson, Simon K A -- Roze, Denis -- Rousset, Francois -- Rueppell, Olav -- Sachs, Joel L -- Santorelli, Lorenzo -- Schmid-Hempel, Paul -- Schwarz, Michael P -- Scott-Phillips, Tom -- Shellmann-Sherman, Janet -- Sherman, Paul W -- Shuker, David M -- Smith, Jeff -- Spagna, Joseph C -- Strassmann, Beverly -- Suarez, Andrew V -- Sundstrom, Liselotte -- Taborsky, Michael -- Taylor, Peter -- Thompson, Graham -- Tooby, John -- Tsutsui, Neil D -- Tsuji, Kazuki -- Turillazzi, Stefano -- Ubeda, Francisco -- Vargo, Edward L -- Voelkl, Bernard -- Wenseleers, Tom -- West, Stuart A -- West-Eberhard, Mary Jane -- Westneat, David F -- Wiernasz, Diane C -- Wild, Geoff -- Wrangham, Richard -- Young, Andrew J -- Zeh, David W -- Zeh, Jeanne A -- Zink, Andrew -- BB/H022716/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2011 Mar 24;471(7339):E1-4; author reply E9-10. doi: 10.1038/nature09831.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21430721" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Altruism ; Animals ; *Biological Evolution ; Cooperative Behavior ; Female ; Game Theory ; *Genetic Fitness ; Genetics, Population ; Heredity ; Humans ; Male ; *Models, Biological ; Phenotype ; Reproducibility of Results ; *Selection, Genetic ; Sex Ratio
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2016-01-09
    Description: The stomach bacterium Helicobacter pylori is one of the most prevalent human pathogens. It has dispersed globally with its human host, resulting in a distinct phylogeographic pattern that can be used to reconstruct both recent and ancient human migrations. The extant European population of H. pylori is known to be a hybrid between Asian and African bacteria, but there exist different hypotheses about when and where the hybridization took place, reflecting the complex demographic history of Europeans. Here, we present a 5300-year-old H. pylori genome from a European Copper Age glacier mummy. The "Iceman" H. pylori is a nearly pure representative of the bacterial population of Asian origin that existed in Europe before hybridization, suggesting that the African population arrived in Europe within the past few thousand years.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4775254/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4775254/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Maixner, Frank -- Krause-Kyora, Ben -- Turaev, Dmitrij -- Herbig, Alexander -- Hoopmann, Michael R -- Hallows, Janice L -- Kusebauch, Ulrike -- Vigl, Eduard Egarter -- Malfertheiner, Peter -- Megraud, Francis -- O'Sullivan, Niall -- Cipollini, Giovanna -- Coia, Valentina -- Samadelli, Marco -- Engstrand, Lars -- Linz, Bodo -- Moritz, Robert L -- Grimm, Rudolf -- Krause, Johannes -- Nebel, Almut -- Moodley, Yoshan -- Rattei, Thomas -- Zink, Albert -- 2P50 GM076547/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P50 GM076547/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM087221/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- S10 RR027584/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 8;351(6269):162-5. doi: 10.1126/science.aad2545.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institute for Mummies and the Iceman, European Academy of Bozen/Bolzano (EURAC), Viale Druso 1, 39100 Bolzano, Italy. frank.maixner@eurac.edu albert.zink@eurac.edu. ; Institute of Clinical Molecular Biology, Kiel University, Schittenhelmstrasse 12, 24105 Kiel, Germany. ; CUBE-Division of Computational Systems Biology, Department of Microbiology and Ecosystem Science, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, 1090 Vienna, Austria. ; Institute for Archaeological Sciences, University of Tubingen, Rumelinstrasse 23, 72072 Tubingen, Germany. Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Kahlaische Strasse 10, 07745 Jena, Germany. ; Institute for Systems Biology, 401 Terry Avenue North, Seattle, WA 98109, USA. ; Scuola Superiore Sanitaria Provinciale "Claudiana," Via Lorenz Bohler 13, 39100 Bolzano, Italy. ; Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Infectious Diseases, Otto-von-Guericke University, Leipziger Strasse 44, 39120 Magdeburg, Germany. ; Universite de Bordeaux, Centre National de Reference des Helicobacters et Campylobacters and INSERM U853, 146 rue Leo Saignat, 33076 Bordeaux, France. ; Institute for Mummies and the Iceman, European Academy of Bozen/Bolzano (EURAC), Viale Druso 1, 39100 Bolzano, Italy. ; Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, 141 83 Stockholm, Sweden. ; Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA. ; Robert Mondavi Institute for Food Science, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA. ; Department of Zoology, University of Venda, Private Bag X5050, Thohoyandou 0950, Republic of South Africa. Department of Integrative Biology and Evolution, Konrad Lorenz Institute for Ethology, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Savoyenstrasse 1a, 1160 Vienna, Austria.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26744403" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Asia ; Chromosome Mapping ; DNA, Bacterial/genetics/isolation & purification ; Europe ; Genome, Bacterial/*genetics ; Helicobacter Infections/*microbiology ; Helicobacter pylori/*genetics/isolation & purification ; Human Migration ; Humans ; *Hybridization, Genetic ; Ice Cover/microbiology ; Mummies/microbiology ; Phylogeny ; Phylogeography ; Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Stomach/*microbiology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2006-05-06
    Description: Given the choice of waiting for an adverse outcome or getting it over with quickly, many people choose the latter. Theoretical models of decision-making have assumed that this occurs because there is a cost to waiting-i.e., dread. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we measured the neural responses to waiting for a cutaneous electric shock. Some individuals dreaded the outcome so much that, when given a choice, they preferred to receive more voltage rather than wait. Even when no decision was required, these extreme dreaders were distinguishable from those who dreaded mildly by the rate of increase of neural activity in the posterior elements of the cortical pain matrix. This suggests that dread derives, in part, from the attention devoted to the expected physical response and not simply from fear or anxiety. Although these differences were observed during a passive waiting procedure, they correlated with individual behavior in a subsequent choice paradigm, providing evidence for a neurobiological link between the experienced disutility of dread and subsequent decisions about unpleasant outcomes.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1820741/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1820741/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Berns, Gregory S -- Chappelow, Jonathan -- Cekic, Milos -- Zink, Caroline F -- Pagnoni, Giuseppe -- Martin-Skurski, Megan E -- DA00367/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- DA016434/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- K08 DA000367/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R01 DA016434/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2006 May 5;312(5774):754-8.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, 101 Woodruff Circle, Suite 4000, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA. gberns@emory.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16675703" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; *Anxiety ; Brain Mapping ; Cerebral Cortex/*physiology ; Cues ; *Decision Making ; Electroshock ; *Emotions ; *Fear ; Female ; Humans ; Magnetic Resonance Imaging ; Male ; Models, Psychological ; Pain/physiopathology ; Time Factors
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2008-03-18
    Description: Common human diseases result from the interplay of many genes and environmental factors. Therefore, a more integrative biology approach is needed to unravel the complexity and causes of such diseases. To elucidate the complexity of common human diseases such as obesity, we have analysed the expression of 23,720 transcripts in large population-based blood and adipose tissue cohorts comprehensively assessed for various phenotypes, including traits related to clinical obesity. In contrast to the blood expression profiles, we observed a marked correlation between gene expression in adipose tissue and obesity-related traits. Genome-wide linkage and association mapping revealed a highly significant genetic component to gene expression traits, including a strong genetic effect of proximal (cis) signals, with 50% of the cis signals overlapping between the two tissues profiled. Here we demonstrate an extensive transcriptional network constructed from the human adipose data that exhibits significant overlap with similar network modules constructed from mouse adipose data. A core network module in humans and mice was identified that is enriched for genes involved in the inflammatory and immune response and has been found to be causally associated to obesity-related traits.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Emilsson, Valur -- Thorleifsson, Gudmar -- Zhang, Bin -- Leonardson, Amy S -- Zink, Florian -- Zhu, Jun -- Carlson, Sonia -- Helgason, Agnar -- Walters, G Bragi -- Gunnarsdottir, Steinunn -- Mouy, Magali -- Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur -- Eiriksdottir, Gudrun H -- Bjornsdottir, Gyda -- Reynisdottir, Inga -- Gudbjartsson, Daniel -- Helgadottir, Anna -- Jonasdottir, Aslaug -- Jonasdottir, Adalbjorg -- Styrkarsdottir, Unnur -- Gretarsdottir, Solveig -- Magnusson, Kristinn P -- Stefansson, Hreinn -- Fossdal, Ragnheidur -- Kristjansson, Kristleifur -- Gislason, Hjortur G -- Stefansson, Tryggvi -- Leifsson, Bjorn G -- Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur -- Lamb, John R -- Gulcher, Jeffrey R -- Reitman, Marc L -- Kong, Augustine -- Schadt, Eric E -- Stefansson, Kari -- England -- Nature. 2008 Mar 27;452(7186):423-8. doi: 10.1038/nature06758. Epub 2008 Mar 16.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉deCODE genetics, 101 Reykjavik, Iceland.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18344981" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adipose Tissue/metabolism ; Adolescent ; Adult ; Aged ; Aged, 80 and over ; Animals ; Blood/metabolism ; Body Mass Index ; Cohort Studies ; European Continental Ancestry Group/genetics ; Female ; *Gene Expression Profiling ; Gene Expression Regulation/*genetics ; Genome, Human ; Humans ; Iceland ; Lod Score ; Male ; Mice ; Middle Aged ; Obesity/*genetics ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics ; Quantitative Trait Loci/genetics ; Sample Size ; Waist-Hip Ratio
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    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2016-03-10
    Description: The origins of the genus Homo are murky, but by H. erectus, bigger brains and bodies had evolved that, along with larger foraging ranges, would have increased the daily energetic requirements of hominins. Yet H. erectus differs from earlier hominins in having relatively smaller teeth, reduced chewing muscles, weaker maximum bite force capabilities, and a relatively smaller gut. This paradoxical combination of increased energy demands along with decreased masticatory and digestive capacities is hypothesized to have been made possible by adding meat to the diet, by mechanically processing food using stone tools, or by cooking. Cooking, however, was apparently uncommon until 500,000 years ago, and the effects of carnivory and Palaeolithic processing techniques on mastication are unknown. Here we report experiments that tested how Lower Palaeolithic processing technologies affect chewing force production and efficacy in humans consuming meat and underground storage organs (USOs). We find that if meat comprised one-third of the diet, the number of chewing cycles per year would have declined by nearly 2 million (a 13% reduction) and total masticatory force required would have declined by 15%. Furthermore, by simply slicing meat and pounding USOs, hominins would have improved their ability to chew meat into smaller particles by 41%, reduced the number of chews per year by another 5%, and decreased masticatory force requirements by an additional 12%. Although cooking has important benefits, it appears that selection for smaller masticatory features in Homo would have been initially made possible by the combination of using stone tools and eating meat.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Zink, Katherine D -- Lieberman, Daniel E -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 24;531(7595):500-3. doi: 10.1038/nature16990. Epub 2016 Mar 9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Human Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, 11 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26958832" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; Animals ; Bite Force ; Carnivory ; Diet/*history ; Female ; Food Handling/*history ; Goats ; History, Ancient ; Hominidae ; Humans ; Male ; Mastication/*physiology ; Meat/*history ; Particle Size ; Plants ; Tool Use Behavior ; Tooth/physiology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 1990-11-30
    Description: Borna disease virus (BDV) causes a rare neurological disease in horses and sheep. The virus has not been classified because neither an infectious particle nor a specific nucleic acid had been identified. To identify the genome of BDV, a subtractive complementary DNA expression library was constructed with polyadenylate-selected RNA from a BDV-infected MDCK cell line. A clone (B8) was isolated that specifically hybridized to RNA isolated from BDV-infected brain tissue and BDV-infected cell lines. This clone hybridized to four BDV-specific positive strand RNAs (10.5, 3.6, 2.1, and 0.85 kilobases) and one negative strand RNA (10.5 kilobases) in BDV-infected rat brain. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the clone suggested that it represented a full-length messenger RNA which contained several open reading frames. In vitro transcription and translation of the clone resulted in the synthesis of the 14- and 24-kilodalton BDV-specific proteins. The 24-kilodalton protein, when translated in vitro from the clone, was recognized by antibodies in the sera of patients (three of seven) with behavioral disorders. This BDV-specific clone will provide the means to isolate the other BDV-specific nucleic acids and to identify the virus responsible for Borna disease. In addition, the significance of BDV or a BDV-related virus as a human pathogen can now be more directly examined.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉VandeWoude, S -- Richt, J A -- Zink, M C -- Rott, R -- Narayan, O -- Clements, J E -- RR00130/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- RR07002/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1990 Nov 30;250(4985):1278-81.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Colorado State University, Lab Animal Resources, Fort Collins 80532.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2244211" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Antibodies, Viral/*blood ; Borna Disease/*microbiology ; Borna disease virus/*genetics/immunology ; Brain/microbiology ; Cloning, Molecular ; DNA/*genetics ; Fluorescent Antibody Technique ; Humans ; Immunoblotting ; Mental Disorders/*microbiology ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Molecular Weight ; Nucleic Acid Hybridization ; RNA, Messenger/analysis/genetics ; RNA, Viral/analysis/genetics ; Rats ; Transcription, Genetic ; Viral Proteins/*genetics/immunology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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