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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2007-09-18
    Description: Antibodies play a central role in immunity by forming an interface with the innate immune system and, typically, mediate proinflammatory activity. We describe a novel posttranslational modification that leads to anti-inflammatory activity of antibodies of immunoglobulin G, isotype 4 (IgG4). IgG4 antibodies are dynamic molecules that exchange Fab arms by swapping a heavy chain and attached light chain (half-molecule) with a heavy-light chain pair from another molecule, which results in bispecific antibodies. Mutagenesis studies revealed that the third constant domain is critical for this activity. The impact of IgG4 Fab arm exchange was confirmed in vivo in a rhesus monkey model with experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis. IgG4 Fab arm exchange is suggested to be an important biological mechanism that provides the basis for the anti-inflammatory activity attributed to IgG4 antibodies.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉van der Neut Kolfschoten, Marijn -- Schuurman, Janine -- Losen, Mario -- Bleeker, Wim K -- Martinez-Martinez, Pilar -- Vermeulen, Ellen -- den Bleker, Tamara H -- Wiegman, Luus -- Vink, Tom -- Aarden, Lucien A -- De Baets, Marc H -- van de Winkel, Jan G J -- Aalberse, Rob C -- Parren, Paul W H I -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2007 Sep 14;317(5844):1554-7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Sanquin Research-AMC Landsteiner Laboratory, Department of Immunopathology, Plesmanlaan 125, 1066 CX Amsterdam, the Netherlands.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17872445" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Allergens/immunology ; Animals ; Antibodies, Bispecific/immunology ; Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology ; Antigens, CD20/immunology ; Antigens, Plant ; Autoantibodies/immunology ; Glycoproteins/immunology ; Humans ; Immunoglobulin Constant Regions/chemistry ; Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments/*chemistry/*immunology/metabolism ; Immunoglobulin G/*chemistry/*immunology/metabolism ; Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains ; Macaca mulatta ; Mice ; Mutation ; Myasthenia Gravis, Autoimmune, Experimental/immunology/prevention & control ; Protein Processing, Post-Translational ; Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor/immunology ; Receptors, Cholinergic/immunology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2011-10-08
    Description: The exchange of the oocyte's genome with the genome of a somatic cell, followed by the derivation of pluripotent stem cells, could enable the generation of specific cells affected in degenerative human diseases. Such cells, carrying the patient's genome, might be useful for cell replacement. Here we report that the development of human oocytes after genome exchange arrests at late cleavage stages in association with transcriptional abnormalities. In contrast, if the oocyte genome is not removed and the somatic cell genome is merely added, the resultant triploid cells develop to the blastocyst stage. Stem cell lines derived from these blastocysts differentiate into cell types of all three germ layers, and a pluripotent gene expression program is established on the genome derived from the somatic cell. This result demonstrates the feasibility of reprogramming human cells using oocytes and identifies removal of the oocyte genome as the primary cause of developmental failure after genome exchange.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Noggle, Scott -- Fung, Ho-Lim -- Gore, Athurva -- Martinez, Hector -- Satriani, Kathleen Crumm -- Prosser, Robert -- Oum, Kiboong -- Paull, Daniel -- Druckenmiller, Sarah -- Freeby, Matthew -- Greenberg, Ellen -- Zhang, Kun -- Goland, Robin -- Sauer, Mark V -- Leibel, Rudolph L -- Egli, Dieter -- England -- Nature. 2011 Oct 5;478(7367):70-5. doi: 10.1038/nature10397.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉The New York Stem Cell Foundation Laboratory, New York, New York, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21979046" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; Blastocyst/cytology/metabolism ; Cell Differentiation ; *Cellular Reprogramming ; DNA Methylation ; Epigenesis, Genetic ; Female ; Gene Expression Profiling ; Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental ; Genome, Human/genetics ; Germ Layers/cytology/embryology/metabolism ; Humans ; Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/*cytology/*metabolism ; Oocyte Donation ; Oocytes/*cytology/growth & development/*physiology ; Primary Cell Culture ; Transcription, Genetic ; Triploidy ; Young Adult
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2011-02-25
    Description: Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare and fatal human premature ageing disease, characterized by premature arteriosclerosis and degeneration of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs). HGPS is caused by a single point mutation in the lamin A (LMNA) gene, resulting in the generation of progerin, a truncated splicing mutant of lamin A. Accumulation of progerin leads to various ageing-associated nuclear defects including disorganization of nuclear lamina and loss of heterochromatin. Here we report the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from fibroblasts obtained from patients with HGPS. HGPS-iPSCs show absence of progerin, and more importantly, lack the nuclear envelope and epigenetic alterations normally associated with premature ageing. Upon differentiation of HGPS-iPSCs, progerin and its ageing-associated phenotypic consequences are restored. Specifically, directed differentiation of HGPS-iPSCs to SMCs leads to the appearance of premature senescence phenotypes associated with vascular ageing. Additionally, our studies identify DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNAPKcs, also known as PRKDC) as a downstream target of progerin. The absence of nuclear DNAPK holoenzyme correlates with premature as well as physiological ageing. Because progerin also accumulates during physiological ageing, our results provide an in vitro iPSC-based model to study the pathogenesis of human premature and physiological vascular ageing.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3088088/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3088088/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Liu, Guang-Hui -- Barkho, Basam Z -- Ruiz, Sergio -- Diep, Dinh -- Qu, Jing -- Yang, Sheng-Lian -- Panopoulos, Athanasia D -- Suzuki, Keiichiro -- Kurian, Leo -- Walsh, Christopher -- Thompson, James -- Boue, Stephanie -- Fung, Ho Lim -- Sancho-Martinez, Ignacio -- Zhang, Kun -- Yates, John 3rd -- Izpisua Belmonte, Juan Carlos -- P41 RR011823/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- R01 DA025779/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R01 DA025779-01/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R01-DA025779/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- T32 CA009370/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- T32 CA009370-25A1/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 Apr 14;472(7342):221-5. doi: 10.1038/nature09879. Epub 2011 Feb 23.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Gene Expression Laboratory, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21346760" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aging/metabolism/pathology/physiology ; Aging, Premature/genetics/pathology/physiopathology ; Calcium-Binding Proteins/analysis ; Cell Aging ; Cell Differentiation ; Cell Line ; Cellular Reprogramming ; DNA-Activated Protein Kinase/metabolism ; Epigenesis, Genetic ; Fibroblasts/pathology ; Holoenzymes/metabolism ; Humans ; Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/metabolism/*pathology ; Lamin Type A ; Microfilament Proteins/analysis ; Models, Biological ; Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/pathology ; Nuclear Envelope/pathology ; Nuclear Proteins/analysis/genetics/metabolism ; Phenotype ; Progeria/genetics/pathology/physiopathology ; Protein Precursors/analysis/genetics/metabolism ; Substrate Specificity
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2012-03-09
    Description: Gorillas are humans' closest living relatives after chimpanzees, and are of comparable importance for the study of human origins and evolution. Here we present the assembly and analysis of a genome sequence for the western lowland gorilla, and compare the whole genomes of all extant great ape genera. We propose a synthesis of genetic and fossil evidence consistent with placing the human-chimpanzee and human-chimpanzee-gorilla speciation events at approximately 6 and 10 million years ago. In 30% of the genome, gorilla is closer to human or chimpanzee than the latter are to each other; this is rarer around coding genes, indicating pervasive selection throughout great ape evolution, and has functional consequences in gene expression. A comparison of protein coding genes reveals approximately 500 genes showing accelerated evolution on each of the gorilla, human and chimpanzee lineages, and evidence for parallel acceleration, particularly of genes involved in hearing. We also compare the western and eastern gorilla species, estimating an average sequence divergence time 1.75 million years ago, but with evidence for more recent genetic exchange and a population bottleneck in the eastern species. The use of the genome sequence in these and future analyses will promote a deeper understanding of great ape biology and evolution.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3303130/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3303130/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Scally, Aylwyn -- Dutheil, Julien Y -- Hillier, LaDeana W -- Jordan, Gregory E -- Goodhead, Ian -- Herrero, Javier -- Hobolth, Asger -- Lappalainen, Tuuli -- Mailund, Thomas -- Marques-Bonet, Tomas -- McCarthy, Shane -- Montgomery, Stephen H -- Schwalie, Petra C -- Tang, Y Amy -- Ward, Michelle C -- Xue, Yali -- Yngvadottir, Bryndis -- Alkan, Can -- Andersen, Lars N -- Ayub, Qasim -- Ball, Edward V -- Beal, Kathryn -- Bradley, Brenda J -- Chen, Yuan -- Clee, Chris M -- Fitzgerald, Stephen -- Graves, Tina A -- Gu, Yong -- Heath, Paul -- Heger, Andreas -- Karakoc, Emre -- Kolb-Kokocinski, Anja -- Laird, Gavin K -- Lunter, Gerton -- Meader, Stephen -- Mort, Matthew -- Mullikin, James C -- Munch, Kasper -- O'Connor, Timothy D -- Phillips, Andrew D -- Prado-Martinez, Javier -- Rogers, Anthony S -- Sajjadian, Saba -- Schmidt, Dominic -- Shaw, Katy -- Simpson, Jared T -- Stenson, Peter D -- Turner, Daniel J -- Vigilant, Linda -- Vilella, Albert J -- Whitener, Weldon -- Zhu, Baoli -- Cooper, David N -- de Jong, Pieter -- Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T -- Eichler, Evan E -- Flicek, Paul -- Goldman, Nick -- Mundy, Nicholas I -- Ning, Zemin -- Odom, Duncan T -- Ponting, Chris P -- Quail, Michael A -- Ryder, Oliver A -- Searle, Stephen M -- Warren, Wesley C -- Wilson, Richard K -- Schierup, Mikkel H -- Rogers, Jane -- Tyler-Smith, Chris -- Durbin, Richard -- 062023/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 075491/Z/04/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 077009/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 077192/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 077198/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 089066/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 090532/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 095908/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 15603/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- 202218/European Research Council/International -- A15603/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- G0501331/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0701805/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- HG002385/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG003079/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- WT062023/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- WT077009/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- WT077192/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- WT077198/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- WT089066/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- Intramural NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Mar 7;483(7388):169-75. doi: 10.1038/nature10842.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton CB10 1SA, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22398555" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Evolution, Molecular ; Female ; Gene Expression Regulation ; *Genetic Speciation ; Genetic Variation/genetics ; Genome/*genetics ; Genomics ; Gorilla gorilla/*genetics ; Humans ; Macaca mulatta/genetics ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Pan troglodytes/genetics ; Phylogeny ; Pongo/genetics ; Proteins/genetics ; Sequence Alignment ; Species Specificity ; Transcription, Genetic
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2012-10-19
    Description: Nuclear-architecture defects have been shown to correlate with the manifestation of a number of human diseases as well as ageing. It is therefore plausible that diseases whose manifestations correlate with ageing might be connected to the appearance of nuclear aberrations over time. We decided to evaluate nuclear organization in the context of ageing-associated disorders by focusing on a leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) dominant mutation (G2019S; glycine-to-serine substitution at amino acid 2019), which is associated with familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease as well as impairment of adult neurogenesis in mice. Here we report on the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from Parkinson's disease patients and the implications of LRRK2(G2019S) mutation in human neural-stem-cell (NSC) populations. Mutant NSCs showed increased susceptibility to proteasomal stress as well as passage-dependent deficiencies in nuclear-envelope organization, clonal expansion and neuronal differentiation. Disease phenotypes were rescued by targeted correction of the LRRK2(G2019S) mutation with its wild-type counterpart in Parkinson's disease iPSCs and were recapitulated after targeted knock-in of the LRRK2(G2019S) mutation in human embryonic stem cells. Analysis of human brain tissue showed nuclear-envelope impairment in clinically diagnosed Parkinson's disease patients. Together, our results identify the nucleus as a previously unknown cellular organelle in Parkinson's disease pathology and may help to open new avenues for Parkinson's disease diagnoses as well as for the potential development of therapeutics targeting this fundamental cell structure.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3504651/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3504651/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Liu, Guang-Hui -- Qu, Jing -- Suzuki, Keiichiro -- Nivet, Emmanuel -- Li, Mo -- Montserrat, Nuria -- Yi, Fei -- Xu, Xiuling -- Ruiz, Sergio -- Zhang, Weiqi -- Wagner, Ulrich -- Kim, Audrey -- Ren, Bing -- Li, Ying -- Goebl, April -- Kim, Jessica -- Soligalla, Rupa Devi -- Dubova, Ilir -- Thompson, James -- Yates, John 3rd -- Esteban, Concepcion Rodriguez -- Sancho-Martinez, Ignacio -- Izpisua Belmonte, Juan Carlos -- ES017166/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- GTB07001/Telethon/Italy -- P41 RR011823/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- U01 ES017166/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Nov 22;491(7425):603-7. doi: 10.1038/nature11557. Epub 2012 Oct 17.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China. ghliu@ibp.ac.cn〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23075850" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Apoptosis ; Cell Differentiation ; Cell Division ; Cell Line ; Clone Cells/metabolism/pathology ; Embryonic Stem Cells/metabolism/pathology ; Gene Knock-In Techniques ; Humans ; Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/metabolism/pathology ; Mutant Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; Mutation ; Neural Stem Cells/metabolism/*pathology ; Nuclear Envelope/genetics/pathology ; Parkinson Disease/*pathology ; Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism ; Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/*genetics/*metabolism ; Stress, Physiological
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-01-18
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Sancho-Martinez, Ignacio -- Izpisua Belmonte, Juan Carlos -- England -- Nature. 2013 Jan 17;493(7432):310-1. doi: 10.1038/493310b.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23325209" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Cellular Reprogramming ; Humans ; Single-Cell Analysis ; Stem Cells/*cytology/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-07-05
    Description: Most great ape genetic variation remains uncharacterized; however, its study is critical for understanding population history, recombination, selection and susceptibility to disease. Here we sequence to high coverage a total of 79 wild- and captive-born individuals representing all six great ape species and seven subspecies and report 88.8 million single nucleotide polymorphisms. Our analysis provides support for genetically distinct populations within each species, signals of gene flow, and the split of common chimpanzees into two distinct groups: Nigeria-Cameroon/western and central/eastern populations. We find extensive inbreeding in almost all wild populations, with eastern gorillas being the most extreme. Inferred effective population sizes have varied radically over time in different lineages and this appears to have a profound effect on the genetic diversity at, or close to, genes in almost all species. We discover and assign 1,982 loss-of-function variants throughout the human and great ape lineages, determining that the rate of gene loss has not been different in the human branch compared to other internal branches in the great ape phylogeny. This comprehensive catalogue of great ape genome diversity provides a framework for understanding evolution and a resource for more effective management of wild and captive great ape populations.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3822165/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3822165/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Prado-Martinez, Javier -- Sudmant, Peter H -- Kidd, Jeffrey M -- Li, Heng -- Kelley, Joanna L -- Lorente-Galdos, Belen -- Veeramah, Krishna R -- Woerner, August E -- O'Connor, Timothy D -- Santpere, Gabriel -- Cagan, Alexander -- Theunert, Christoph -- Casals, Ferran -- Laayouni, Hafid -- Munch, Kasper -- Hobolth, Asger -- Halager, Anders E -- Malig, Maika -- Hernandez-Rodriguez, Jessica -- Hernando-Herraez, Irene -- Prufer, Kay -- Pybus, Marc -- Johnstone, Laurel -- Lachmann, Michael -- Alkan, Can -- Twigg, Dorina -- Petit, Natalia -- Baker, Carl -- Hormozdiari, Fereydoun -- Fernandez-Callejo, Marcos -- Dabad, Marc -- Wilson, Michael L -- Stevison, Laurie -- Camprubi, Cristina -- Carvalho, Tiago -- Ruiz-Herrera, Aurora -- Vives, Laura -- Mele, Marta -- Abello, Teresa -- Kondova, Ivanela -- Bontrop, Ronald E -- Pusey, Anne -- Lankester, Felix -- Kiyang, John A -- Bergl, Richard A -- Lonsdorf, Elizabeth -- Myers, Simon -- Ventura, Mario -- Gagneux, Pascal -- Comas, David -- Siegismund, Hans -- Blanc, Julie -- Agueda-Calpena, Lidia -- Gut, Marta -- Fulton, Lucinda -- Tishkoff, Sarah A -- Mullikin, James C -- Wilson, Richard K -- Gut, Ivo G -- Gonder, Mary Katherine -- Ryder, Oliver A -- Hahn, Beatrice H -- Navarro, Arcadi -- Akey, Joshua M -- Bertranpetit, Jaume -- Reich, David -- Mailund, Thomas -- Schierup, Mikkel H -- Hvilsom, Christina -- Andres, Aida M -- Wall, Jeffrey D -- Bustamante, Carlos D -- Hammer, Michael F -- Eichler, Evan E -- Marques-Bonet, Tomas -- 090532/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 260372/European Research Council/International -- DP1 ES022577/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- DP1ES022577-04/DP/NCCDPHP CDC HHS/ -- GM100233/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- HG002385/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM095882/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM100233/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG002385/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01_HG005226/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 Jul 25;499(7459):471-5. doi: 10.1038/nature12228. Epub 2013 Jul 3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institut de Biologia Evolutiva, CSIC-Universitat Pompeu Fabra, PRBB, Doctor Aiguader 88, Barcelona, Catalonia 08003, Spain.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23823723" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Africa ; Animals ; Animals, Wild/genetics ; Animals, Zoo/genetics ; Asia, Southeastern ; Evolution, Molecular ; Gene Flow/genetics ; *Genetic Variation ; Genetics, Population ; Genome/genetics ; Gorilla gorilla/classification/genetics ; Hominidae/classification/*genetics ; Humans ; Inbreeding ; Pan paniscus/classification/genetics ; Pan troglodytes/classification/genetics ; Phylogeny ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics ; Population Density
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2014-08-01
    Description: Microorganisms evolve via a range of mechanisms that may include or involve sexual/parasexual reproduction, mutators, aneuploidy, Hsp90 and even prions. Mechanisms that may seem detrimental can be repurposed to generate diversity. Here we show that the human fungal pathogen Mucor circinelloides develops spontaneous resistance to the antifungal drug FK506 (tacrolimus) via two distinct mechanisms. One involves Mendelian mutations that confer stable drug resistance; the other occurs via an epigenetic RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated pathway resulting in unstable drug resistance. The peptidylprolyl isomerase FKBP12 interacts with FK506 forming a complex that inhibits the protein phosphatase calcineurin. Calcineurin inhibition by FK506 blocks M. circinelloides transition to hyphae and enforces yeast growth. Mutations in the fkbA gene encoding FKBP12 or the calcineurin cnbR or cnaA genes confer FK506 resistance and restore hyphal growth. In parallel, RNAi is spontaneously triggered to silence the fkbA gene, giving rise to drug-resistant epimutants. FK506-resistant epimutants readily reverted to the drug-sensitive wild-type phenotype when grown without exposure to the drug. The establishment of these epimutants is accompanied by generation of abundant fkbA small RNAs and requires the RNAi pathway as well as other factors that constrain or reverse the epimutant state. Silencing involves the generation of a double-stranded RNA trigger intermediate using the fkbA mature mRNA as a template to produce antisense fkbA RNA. This study uncovers a novel epigenetic RNAi-based epimutation mechanism controlling phenotypic plasticity, with possible implications for antimicrobial drug resistance and RNAi-regulatory mechanisms in fungi and other eukaryotes.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4177005/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4177005/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Calo, Silvia -- Shertz-Wall, Cecelia -- Lee, Soo Chan -- Bastidas, Robert J -- Nicolas, Francisco E -- Granek, Joshua A -- Mieczkowski, Piotr -- Torres-Martinez, Santiago -- Ruiz-Vazquez, Rosa M -- Cardenas, Maria E -- Heitman, Joseph -- R01 AI039115/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI50438-10/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA154499/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA154499-04/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R37 AI039115/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R37 AI39115-17/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Sep 25;513(7519):555-8. doi: 10.1038/nature13575. Epub 2014 Jul 27.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA. ; 1] Regional Campus of International Excellence "Campus Mare Nostrum", Murcia 30100, Spain [2] Department of Genetics and Microbiology, Faculty of Biology, University of Murcia, Murcia 30100, Spain. ; 1] Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA [2] Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA [3] Duke Center for the Genomics of Microbial Systems, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA. ; High-Throughput Sequencing Facility, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA. ; Department of Genetics and Microbiology, Faculty of Biology, University of Murcia, Murcia 30100, Spain.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25079329" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Calcineurin/genetics/metabolism ; Calcineurin Inhibitors ; Drug Resistance, Fungal/*genetics ; Epigenesis, Genetic/*genetics ; Humans ; Hyphae/drug effects/genetics/growth & development ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Mucor/*drug effects/*genetics/growth & development ; Mucormycosis/drug therapy/microbiology ; Mutation/*genetics ; Phenotype ; *RNA Interference ; Tacrolimus/metabolism/*pharmacology ; Tacrolimus Binding Protein 1A/deficiency/genetics/metabolism
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2007-07-21
    Description: Understanding why some people establish and maintain effective control of HIV-1 and others do not is a priority in the effort to develop new treatments for HIV/AIDS. Using a whole-genome association strategy, we identified polymorphisms that explain nearly 15% of the variation among individuals in viral load during the asymptomatic set-point period of infection. One of these is found within an endogenous retroviral element and is associated with major histocompatibility allele human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B*5701, whereas a second is located near the HLA-C gene. An additional analysis of the time to HIV disease progression implicated two genes, one of which encodes an RNA polymerase I subunit. These findings emphasize the importance of studying human genetic variation as a guide to combating infectious agents.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1991296/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1991296/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Fellay, Jacques -- Shianna, Kevin V -- Ge, Dongliang -- Colombo, Sara -- Ledergerber, Bruno -- Weale, Mike -- Zhang, Kunlin -- Gumbs, Curtis -- Castagna, Antonella -- Cossarizza, Andrea -- Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro -- De Luca, Andrea -- Easterbrook, Philippa -- Francioli, Patrick -- Mallal, Simon -- Martinez-Picado, Javier -- Miro, Jose M -- Obel, Niels -- Smith, Jason P -- Wyniger, Josiane -- Descombes, Patrick -- Antonarakis, Stylianos E -- Letvin, Norman L -- McMichael, Andrew J -- Haynes, Barton F -- Telenti, Amalio -- Goldstein, David B -- G0200585/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MC_U137884177/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- U19 AI067854/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U19 AI067854-03/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2007 Aug 17;317(5840):944-7. Epub 2007 Jul 19.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Center for Population Genomics and Pharmacogenetics, Duke Institute for Genome Sciences and Policy, Duke University, Durham, NC 27710, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17641165" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Cohort Studies ; DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics ; Disease Progression ; Female ; Genes, MHC Class I ; *Genome, Human ; HIV Infections/*genetics/immunology/therapy/*virology ; HIV-1/*physiology ; HLA-B Antigens/*genetics ; HLA-C Antigens/*genetics ; Haplotypes ; Humans ; Immediate-Early Proteins/genetics ; Major Histocompatibility Complex/*genetics ; Male ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide ; RNA, Untranslated ; Regression Analysis ; Viral Load
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2011-10-25
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Carrero-Martinez, Franklin A -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2011 Oct 21;334(6054):313. doi: 10.1126/science.1209555.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biology, University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez, Mayaguez, PR 00681. franklin.carrero@upr.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22021843" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Faculty ; Humans ; Mentors ; Minority Groups/*education ; *Research ; *Universities
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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