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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2011-01-21
    Description: Autophagy is an essential, homeostatic process by which cells break down their own components. Perhaps the most primordial function of this lysosomal degradation pathway is adaptation to nutrient deprivation. However, in complex multicellular organisms, the core molecular machinery of autophagy - the 'autophagy proteins' - orchestrates diverse aspects of cellular and organismal responses to other dangerous stimuli such as infection. Recent developments reveal a crucial role for the autophagy pathway and proteins in immunity and inflammation. They balance the beneficial and detrimental effects of immunity and inflammation, and thereby may protect against infectious, autoimmune and inflammatory diseases.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3131688/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3131688/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Levine, Beth -- Mizushima, Noboru -- Virgin, Herbert W -- R01 AI054483/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI084887/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA096511/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA109618/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA109618-07/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- U54 AI057156/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U54 AI057160/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 Jan 20;469(7330):323-35. doi: 10.1038/nature09782.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Microbiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Boulevard, Dallas, Texas 75390-9113, USA. beth.levine@utsouthwestern.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21248839" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Autophagy/*immunology/physiology ; Cell Membrane/metabolism ; Humans ; Immunity/*immunology/physiology ; Immunity, Innate/immunology/physiology ; Infection/immunology/microbiology/parasitology/virology ; Inflammation/*immunology/microbiology/*pathology ; Phagosomes/immunology/microbiology/parasitology/virology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2010-03-12
    Description: Developing a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine is critical to end the global acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, but many question whether this goal is achievable. Natural immunity is not protective, and despite immunogenicity of HIV vaccine candidates, human trials have exclusively yielded disappointing results. Nevertheless, there is an indication that success may be possible, but this will be dependent on understanding the antiviral immune response in unprecedented depth to identify and engineer the types of immunity required. Here we outline fundamental immunological questions that need to be answered to develop a protective HIV vaccine, and the immediate need to harness a much broader scientific community to achieve this goal.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Virgin, Herbert W -- Walker, Bruce D -- England -- Nature. 2010 Mar 11;464(7286):224-31. doi: 10.1038/nature08898.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Washington University School of Medicine and Midwest Regional Center of Excellence for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Disease Research, Campus Box 8118, 660 South Euclid Avenue, Saint Louis, Missouri 63110, USA. virgin@wustl.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20220841" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *AIDS Vaccines ; Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/*immunology/prevention & control ; Animals ; B-Lymphocytes/immunology ; CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology ; CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology ; HIV/*immunology ; HIV Antibodies/immunology ; Humans ; Mucous Membrane/immunology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-02-01
    Description: The lysosomal degradation pathway of autophagy has a crucial role in defence against infection, neurodegenerative disorders, cancer and ageing. Accordingly, agents that induce autophagy may have broad therapeutic applications. One approach to developing such agents is to exploit autophagy manipulation strategies used by microbial virulence factors. Here we show that a peptide, Tat-beclin 1-derived from a region of the autophagy protein, beclin 1, which binds human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 Nef-is a potent inducer of autophagy, and interacts with a newly identified negative regulator of autophagy, GAPR-1 (also called GLIPR2). Tat-beclin 1 decreases the accumulation of polyglutamine expansion protein aggregates and the replication of several pathogens (including HIV-1) in vitro, and reduces mortality in mice infected with chikungunya or West Nile virus. Thus, through the characterization of a domain of beclin 1 that interacts with HIV-1 Nef, we have developed an autophagy-inducing peptide that has potential efficacy in the treatment of human diseases.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3788641/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3788641/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Shoji-Kawata, Sanae -- Sumpter, Rhea -- Leveno, Matthew -- Campbell, Grant R -- Zou, Zhongju -- Kinch, Lisa -- Wilkins, Angela D -- Sun, Qihua -- Pallauf, Kathrin -- MacDuff, Donna -- Huerta, Carlos -- Virgin, Herbert W -- Helms, J Bernd -- Eerland, Ruud -- Tooze, Sharon A -- Xavier, Ramnik -- Lenschow, Deborah J -- Yamamoto, Ai -- King, David -- Lichtarge, Olivier -- Grishin, Nick V -- Spector, Stephen A -- Kaloyanova, Dora V -- Levine, Beth -- K08 AI099150/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA142543/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM066099/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM079656/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM094575/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS050199/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS077111/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS084912/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R0I DK083756/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R0I DK086502/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R0I GM066099/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R0I GM079656/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R0I NS063973/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R0I NS077874/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- RC1 DK086502/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM008297/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U54 AI057156/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U54AI057156/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U54AI057160/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 Feb 14;494(7436):201-6. doi: 10.1038/nature11866. Epub 2013 Jan 30.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Internal Medicine, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23364696" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/*chemistry/metabolism/pharmacology/*therapeutic use ; Autophagy/*drug effects ; Cell Membrane Permeability ; Cells, Cultured ; Chikungunya virus/drug effects ; HIV-1/drug effects/metabolism/physiology ; HeLa Cells ; Humans ; Macrophages/cytology ; Membrane Proteins/*chemistry/metabolism/pharmacology/*therapeutic use ; Mice ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Peptide Fragments/*chemistry/metabolism/*pharmacology ; Recombinant Fusion Proteins/chemistry/metabolism/pharmacology ; Virus Replication/drug effects ; West Nile virus/drug effects ; nef Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/metabolism ; tat Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/genetics/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-12-07
    Description: The yellow fever vaccine YF-17D is one of the most successful vaccines ever developed in humans. Despite its efficacy and widespread use in more than 600 million people, the mechanisms by which it stimulates protective immunity remain poorly understood. Recent studies using systems biology approaches in humans have revealed that YF-17D-induced early expression of general control nonderepressible 2 kinase (GCN2) in the blood strongly correlates with the magnitude of the later CD8(+) T cell response. We demonstrate a key role for virus-induced GCN2 activation in programming dendritic cells to initiate autophagy and enhanced antigen presentation to both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. These results reveal an unappreciated link between virus-induced integrated stress response in dendritic cells and the adaptive immune response.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4048998/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4048998/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ravindran, Rajesh -- Khan, Nooruddin -- Nakaya, Helder I -- Li, Shuzhao -- Loebbermann, Jens -- Maddur, Mohan S -- Park, Youngja -- Jones, Dean P -- Chappert, Pascal -- Davoust, Jean -- Weiss, David S -- Virgin, Herbert W -- Ron, David -- Pulendran, Bali -- 084812/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 084812/Z/08/Z/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- N01 AI50019/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- N01 AI50025/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- P51 OD011132/OD/NIH HHS/ -- R37 AI048638/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R37 DK057665/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R56 AI048638/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U19 AI057266/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U19 AI090023/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U54 AI057157/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U54 AI057160/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Jan 17;343(6168):313-7. doi: 10.1126/science.1246829. Epub 2013 Dec 5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Emory Vaccine Center, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, 954 Gatewood Road, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24310610" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Antigen Presentation ; CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology ; CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology ; Cell Line ; Cricetinae ; Dendritic Cells/enzymology/*immunology ; Enzyme Activation ; Humans ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Mice, Mutant Strains ; Microtubule-Associated Proteins/genetics ; Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/*biosynthesis/genetics ; Yellow Fever Vaccine/*immunology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2014-06-28
    Description: Mammals are coinfected by multiple pathogens that interact through unknown mechanisms. We found that helminth infection, characterized by the induction of the cytokine interleukin-4 (IL-4) and the activation of the transcription factor Stat6, reactivated murine gamma-herpesvirus infection in vivo. IL-4 promoted viral replication and blocked the antiviral effects of interferon-gamma (IFNgamma) by inducing Stat6 binding to the promoter for an important viral transcriptional transactivator. IL-4 also reactivated human Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus from latency in cultured cells. Exogenous IL-4 plus blockade of IFNgamma reactivated latent murine gamma-herpesvirus infection in vivo, suggesting a "two-signal" model for viral reactivation. Thus, chronic herpesvirus infection, a component of the mammalian virome, is regulated by the counterpoised actions of multiple cytokines on viral promoters that have evolved to sense host immune status.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4531374/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4531374/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Reese, T A -- Wakeman, B S -- Choi, H S -- Hufford, M M -- Huang, S C -- Zhang, X -- Buck, M D -- Jezewski, A -- Kambal, A -- Liu, C Y -- Goel, G -- Murray, P J -- Xavier, R J -- Kaplan, M H -- Renne, R -- Speck, S H -- Artyomov, M N -- Pearce, E J -- Virgin, H W -- AI032573/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI084887/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- CA119917/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA164062/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA52004/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA021765/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI032573/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI084887/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI095282/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA052004/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA119917/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA164062/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- U54 AI057160/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Aug 1;345(6196):573-7. doi: 10.1126/science.1254517. Epub 2014 Jun 26.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. ; Emory University Vaccine Center, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA. ; Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA. ; Departments of Pediatrics and Microbiology and Immunology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA. ; Center for Computational and Integrative Biology and Gastrointestinal Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA. ; Departments of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105, USA. ; Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. virgin@wustl.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24968940" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Gammaherpesvirinae/genetics/*physiology ; Gene Expression Regulation, Viral ; Herpesvirus 8, Human/genetics/*physiology ; Humans ; Interferon-gamma/*immunology/pharmacology ; Interleukin-4/*metabolism/pharmacology ; Macrophages/immunology ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Nematospiroides dubius/immunology ; Ovum/immunology ; Promoter Regions, Genetic ; STAT6 Transcription Factor/*metabolism ; Schistosoma mansoni/*immunology ; Schistosomiasis mansoni/*immunology ; Strongylida Infections/immunology ; Virus Activation/drug effects/genetics/*physiology ; Virus Latency/physiology ; Virus Replication/physiology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2016-01-28
    Description: Viruses that infect the intestine include major human pathogens (retroviruses, noroviruses, rotaviruses, astroviruses, picornaviruses, adenoviruses, herpesviruses) that constitute a serious public health problem worldwide. These viral pathogens are members of a large, complex viral community inhabiting the intestine termed "the enteric virome." Enteric viruses have intimate functional and genetic relationships with both the host and other microbial constituents that inhabit the intestine, such as the bacterial microbiota, their associated phages, helminthes, and fungi, which together constitute the microbiome. Emerging data indicate that enteric viruses regulate, and are in turn regulated by, these other microbes through a series of processes termed "transkingdom interactions." This represents a changing paradigm in intestinal immunity to viral infection. Here we review recent advances in the field and propose new ways in which to conceptualize this important area.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4751997/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4751997/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Pfeiffer, Julie K -- Virgin, Herbert W -- R01 AI074668/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI111918/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK 101354/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R21 AI114927/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R24 OD019793/OD/NIH HHS/ -- U19 AI109725/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 15;351(6270). pii: aad5872. doi: 10.1126/science.aad5872. Epub 2016 Jan 14.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Microbiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA. julie.pfeiffer@utsouthwestern.edu virgin@wustl.edu. ; Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. julie.pfeiffer@utsouthwestern.edu virgin@wustl.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26816384" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Bacteria/immunology/virology ; Bacteriophages/physiology ; Fungi/immunology ; Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology ; Humans ; Intestinal Diseases/*immunology/*virology ; Intestines/*immunology/*virology ; Microbiota/*immunology ; Virus Diseases/*immunology ; Viruses/*immunology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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