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  • 1
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    Unknown
    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2002-05-25
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Baker, Susan P -- Baker, Timothy D -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2002 May 17;296(5571):1237.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12025831" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Accidents, Traffic/statistics & numerical data ; Adult ; Cause of Death ; Child ; Child, Preschool ; Humans ; *Public Health ; *Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology/mortality
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2011-08-13
    Description: Multiple sclerosis is a common disease of the central nervous system in which the interplay between inflammatory and neurodegenerative processes typically results in intermittent neurological disturbance followed by progressive accumulation of disability. Epidemiological studies have shown that genetic factors are primarily responsible for the substantially increased frequency of the disease seen in the relatives of affected individuals, and systematic attempts to identify linkage in multiplex families have confirmed that variation within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) exerts the greatest individual effect on risk. Modestly powered genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have enabled more than 20 additional risk loci to be identified and have shown that multiple variants exerting modest individual effects have a key role in disease susceptibility. Most of the genetic architecture underlying susceptibility to the disease remains to be defined and is anticipated to require the analysis of sample sizes that are beyond the numbers currently available to individual research groups. In a collaborative GWAS involving 9,772 cases of European descent collected by 23 research groups working in 15 different countries, we have replicated almost all of the previously suggested associations and identified at least a further 29 novel susceptibility loci. Within the MHC we have refined the identity of the HLA-DRB1 risk alleles and confirmed that variation in the HLA-A gene underlies the independent protective effect attributable to the class I region. Immunologically relevant genes are significantly overrepresented among those mapping close to the identified loci and particularly implicate T-helper-cell differentiation in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3182531/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3182531/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉International Multiple Sclerosis Genetics Consortium -- Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium 2 -- Sawcer, Stephen -- Hellenthal, Garrett -- Pirinen, Matti -- Spencer, Chris C A -- Patsopoulos, Nikolaos A -- Moutsianas, Loukas -- Dilthey, Alexander -- Su, Zhan -- Freeman, Colin -- Hunt, Sarah E -- Edkins, Sarah -- Gray, Emma -- Booth, David R -- Potter, Simon C -- Goris, An -- Band, Gavin -- Oturai, Annette Bang -- Strange, Amy -- Saarela, Janna -- Bellenguez, Celine -- Fontaine, Bertrand -- Gillman, Matthew -- Hemmer, Bernhard -- Gwilliam, Rhian -- Zipp, Frauke -- Jayakumar, Alagurevathi -- Martin, Roland -- Leslie, Stephen -- Hawkins, Stanley -- Giannoulatou, Eleni -- D'alfonso, Sandra -- Blackburn, Hannah -- Martinelli Boneschi, Filippo -- Liddle, Jennifer -- Harbo, Hanne F -- Perez, Marc L -- Spurkland, Anne -- Waller, Matthew J -- Mycko, Marcin P -- Ricketts, Michelle -- Comabella, Manuel -- Hammond, Naomi -- Kockum, Ingrid -- McCann, Owen T -- Ban, Maria -- Whittaker, Pamela -- Kemppinen, Anu -- Weston, Paul -- Hawkins, Clive -- Widaa, Sara -- Zajicek, John -- Dronov, Serge -- Robertson, Neil -- Bumpstead, Suzannah J -- Barcellos, Lisa F -- Ravindrarajah, Rathi -- Abraham, Roby -- Alfredsson, Lars -- Ardlie, Kristin -- Aubin, Cristin -- Baker, Amie -- Baker, Katharine -- Baranzini, Sergio E -- Bergamaschi, Laura -- Bergamaschi, Roberto -- Bernstein, Allan -- Berthele, Achim -- Boggild, Mike -- Bradfield, Jonathan P -- Brassat, David -- Broadley, Simon A -- Buck, Dorothea -- Butzkueven, Helmut -- Capra, Ruggero -- Carroll, William M -- Cavalla, Paola -- Celius, Elisabeth G -- Cepok, Sabine -- Chiavacci, Rosetta -- Clerget-Darpoux, Francoise -- Clysters, Katleen -- Comi, Giancarlo -- Cossburn, Mark -- Cournu-Rebeix, Isabelle -- Cox, Mathew B -- Cozen, Wendy -- Cree, Bruce A C -- Cross, Anne H -- Cusi, Daniele -- Daly, Mark J -- Davis, Emma -- de Bakker, Paul I W -- Debouverie, Marc -- D'hooghe, Marie Beatrice -- Dixon, Katherine -- Dobosi, Rita -- Dubois, Benedicte -- Ellinghaus, David -- Elovaara, Irina -- Esposito, Federica -- Fontenille, Claire -- Foote, Simon -- Franke, Andre -- Galimberti, Daniela -- Ghezzi, Angelo -- Glessner, Joseph -- Gomez, Refujia -- Gout, Olivier -- Graham, Colin -- Grant, Struan F A -- Guerini, Franca Rosa -- Hakonarson, Hakon -- Hall, Per -- Hamsten, Anders -- Hartung, Hans-Peter -- Heard, Rob N -- Heath, Simon -- Hobart, Jeremy -- Hoshi, Muna -- Infante-Duarte, Carmen -- Ingram, Gillian -- Ingram, Wendy -- Islam, Talat -- Jagodic, Maja -- Kabesch, Michael -- Kermode, Allan G -- Kilpatrick, Trevor J -- Kim, Cecilia -- Klopp, Norman -- Koivisto, Keijo -- Larsson, Malin -- Lathrop, Mark -- Lechner-Scott, Jeannette S -- Leone, Maurizio A -- Leppa, Virpi -- Liljedahl, Ulrika -- Bomfim, Izaura Lima -- Lincoln, Robin R -- Link, Jenny -- Liu, Jianjun -- Lorentzen, Aslaug R -- Lupoli, Sara -- Macciardi, Fabio -- Mack, Thomas -- Marriott, Mark -- Martinelli, Vittorio -- Mason, Deborah -- McCauley, Jacob L -- Mentch, Frank -- Mero, Inger-Lise -- Mihalova, Tania -- Montalban, Xavier -- Mottershead, John -- Myhr, Kjell-Morten -- Naldi, Paola -- Ollier, William -- Page, Alison -- Palotie, Aarno -- Pelletier, Jean -- Piccio, Laura -- Pickersgill, Trevor -- Piehl, Fredrik -- Pobywajlo, Susan -- Quach, Hong L -- Ramsay, Patricia P -- Reunanen, Mauri -- Reynolds, Richard -- Rioux, John D -- Rodegher, Mariaemma -- Roesner, Sabine -- Rubio, Justin P -- Ruckert, Ina-Maria -- Salvetti, Marco -- Salvi, Erika -- Santaniello, Adam -- Schaefer, Catherine A -- Schreiber, Stefan -- Schulze, Christian -- Scott, Rodney J -- Sellebjerg, Finn -- Selmaj, Krzysztof W -- Sexton, David -- Shen, Ling -- Simms-Acuna, Brigid -- Skidmore, Sheila -- Sleiman, Patrick M A -- Smestad, Cathrine -- Sorensen, Per Soelberg -- Sondergaard, Helle Bach -- Stankovich, Jim -- Strange, Richard C -- Sulonen, Anna-Maija -- Sundqvist, Emilie -- Syvanen, Ann-Christine -- Taddeo, Francesca -- Taylor, Bruce -- Blackwell, Jenefer M -- Tienari, Pentti -- Bramon, Elvira -- Tourbah, Ayman -- Brown, Matthew A -- Tronczynska, Ewa -- Casas, Juan P -- Tubridy, Niall -- Corvin, Aiden -- Vickery, Jane -- Jankowski, Janusz -- Villoslada, Pablo -- Markus, Hugh S -- Wang, Kai -- Mathew, Christopher G -- Wason, James -- Palmer, Colin N A -- Wichmann, H-Erich -- Plomin, Robert -- Willoughby, Ernest -- Rautanen, Anna -- Winkelmann, Juliane -- Wittig, Michael -- Trembath, Richard C -- Yaouanq, Jacqueline -- Viswanathan, Ananth C -- Zhang, Haitao -- Wood, Nicholas W -- Zuvich, Rebecca -- Deloukas, Panos -- Langford, Cordelia -- Duncanson, Audrey -- Oksenberg, Jorge R -- Pericak-Vance, Margaret A -- Haines, Jonathan L -- Olsson, Tomas -- Hillert, Jan -- Ivinson, Adrian J -- De Jager, Philip L -- Peltonen, Leena -- Stewart, Graeme J -- Hafler, David A -- Hauser, Stephen L -- McVean, Gil -- Donnelly, Peter -- Compston, Alastair -- 068545/Z/02/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 075491/Z/04/Z/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 084702/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 085475/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 085475/B/08/Z/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 085475/Z/08/Z/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 090532/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 898/Multiple Sclerosis Society/United Kingdom -- AI076544/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- CA104021/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- G0100594/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0400017/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0700061/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0901310/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0901461/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G19/2/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- K23N/S048869/PHS HHS/ -- NS032830/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- NS049477/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- NS049510/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- NS067305/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- NS19142/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- NS26799/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- NS43559/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- PDA/02/06/016/Department of Health/United Kingdom -- R01 NS026799/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS049477/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS049477-06A1/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- RR020092/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- RR024992/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- UL1 TR000448/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/ -- Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2011 Aug 10;476(7359):214-9. doi: 10.1038/nature10251.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21833088" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Alleles ; Cell Differentiation/immunology ; Europe/ethnology ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease/*genetics ; Genome, Human/genetics ; Genome-Wide Association Study ; HLA-A Antigens/genetics ; HLA-DR Antigens/genetics ; HLA-DRB1 Chains ; Humans ; Immunity, Cellular/genetics/*immunology ; Major Histocompatibility Complex/genetics ; Multiple Sclerosis/*genetics/*immunology ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics ; Sample Size ; T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/cytology/immunology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2008-03-29
    Description: Schizophrenia is a devastating neurodevelopmental disorder whose genetic influences remain elusive. We hypothesize that individually rare structural variants contribute to the illness. Microdeletions and microduplications 〉100 kilobases were identified by microarray comparative genomic hybridization of genomic DNA from 150 individuals with schizophrenia and 268 ancestry-matched controls. All variants were validated by high-resolution platforms. Novel deletions and duplications of genes were present in 5% of controls versus 15% of cases and 20% of young-onset cases, both highly significant differences. The association was independently replicated in patients with childhood-onset schizophrenia as compared with their parents. Mutations in cases disrupted genes disproportionately from signaling networks controlling neurodevelopment, including neuregulin and glutamate pathways. These results suggest that multiple, individually rare mutations altering genes in neurodevelopmental pathways contribute to schizophrenia.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Walsh, Tom -- McClellan, Jon M -- McCarthy, Shane E -- Addington, Anjene M -- Pierce, Sarah B -- Cooper, Greg M -- Nord, Alex S -- Kusenda, Mary -- Malhotra, Dheeraj -- Bhandari, Abhishek -- Stray, Sunday M -- Rippey, Caitlin F -- Roccanova, Patricia -- Makarov, Vlad -- Lakshmi, B -- Findling, Robert L -- Sikich, Linmarie -- Stromberg, Thomas -- Merriman, Barry -- Gogtay, Nitin -- Butler, Philip -- Eckstrand, Kristen -- Noory, Laila -- Gochman, Peter -- Long, Robert -- Chen, Zugen -- Davis, Sean -- Baker, Carl -- Eichler, Evan E -- Meltzer, Paul S -- Nelson, Stanley F -- Singleton, Andrew B -- Lee, Ming K -- Rapoport, Judith L -- King, Mary-Claire -- Sebat, Jonathan -- HD043569/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- M01 RR000046/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- MH061355/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- MH061464/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- MH061528/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- NS052108/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 HD043569/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- RR000046/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- RR025014/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- U01 MH061355/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- U01 MH061464/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- U01 MH061528/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- U24 NS052108/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- UL1 RR025014/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- Intramural NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2008 Apr 25;320(5875):539-43. doi: 10.1126/science.1155174. Epub 2008 Mar 27.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18369103" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adolescent ; Adult ; Age of Onset ; Amino Acid Sequence ; Brain/cytology/*growth & development/metabolism ; Case-Control Studies ; Child ; Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 1/chemistry/genetics/physiology ; Female ; *Gene Deletion ; *Gene Duplication ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease ; Genome, Human ; Humans ; Male ; Molecular Sequence Data ; *Mutation ; Neurons/cytology/physiology ; Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide ; Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor/chemistry/genetics/physiology ; Receptor, ErbB-4 ; Schizophrenia/*genetics/physiopathology ; Signal Transduction
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2008-05-20
    Description: Increasing quantities of atmospheric anthropogenic fixed nitrogen entering the open ocean could account for up to about a third of the ocean's external (nonrecycled) nitrogen supply and up to approximately 3% of the annual new marine biological production, approximately 0.3 petagram of carbon per year. This input could account for the production of up to approximately 1.6 teragrams of nitrous oxide (N2O) per year. Although approximately 10% of the ocean's drawdown of atmospheric anthropogenic carbon dioxide may result from this atmospheric nitrogen fertilization, leading to a decrease in radiative forcing, up to about two-thirds of this amount may be offset by the increase in N2O emissions. The effects of increasing atmospheric nitrogen deposition are expected to continue to grow in the future.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Duce, R A -- LaRoche, J -- Altieri, K -- Arrigo, K R -- Baker, A R -- Capone, D G -- Cornell, S -- Dentener, F -- Galloway, J -- Ganeshram, R S -- Geider, R J -- Jickells, T -- Kuypers, M M -- Langlois, R -- Liss, P S -- Liu, S M -- Middelburg, J J -- Moore, C M -- Nickovic, S -- Oschlies, A -- Pedersen, T -- Prospero, J -- Schlitzer, R -- Seitzinger, S -- Sorensen, L L -- Uematsu, M -- Ulloa, O -- Voss, M -- Ward, B -- Zamora, L -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2008 May 16;320(5878):893-7. doi: 10.1126/science.1150369.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Departments of Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18487184" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Atmosphere ; Carbon ; Carbon Dioxide/metabolism ; Ecosystem ; *Human Activities ; Humans ; *Nitrogen/metabolism ; Nitrogen Fixation ; Oceans and Seas ; *Reactive Nitrogen Species/metabolism ; *Seawater
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
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    Unknown
    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2008-03-22
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Baker, Timothy D -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2008 Mar 21;319(5870):1616. doi: 10.1126/science.319.5870.1616d.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18356507" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Humans ; India/epidemiology ; Malaria/economics/mortality/*prevention & control
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2009-03-21
    Description: Cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels localize exclusively to the plasma membrane of photosensitive outer segments of rod photoreceptors where they generate the electrical response to light. Here, we report the finding that targeting of CNG channels to the rod outer segment required their interaction with ankyrin-G. Ankyrin-G localized exclusively to rod outer segments, coimmunoprecipitated with the CNG channel, and bound to the C-terminal domain of the channel beta1 subunit. Ankyrin-G depletion in neonatal mouse retinas markedly reduced CNG channel expression. Transgenic expression of CNG channel beta-subunit mutants in Xenopus rods showed that ankyrin-G binding was necessary and sufficient for targeting of the beta1 subunit to outer segments. Thus, ankyrin-G is required for transport of CNG channels to the plasma membrane of rod outer segments.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2792576/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2792576/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kizhatil, Krishnakumar -- Baker, Sheila A -- Arshavsky, Vadim Y -- Bennett, Vann -- EY12859/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- P30 EY005722/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- P30 EY005722-23/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- R01 EY012859/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- R01 EY012859-10/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Mar 20;323(5921):1614-7. doi: 10.1126/science.1169789.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Cell Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19299621" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Animals, Genetically Modified ; Ankyrins/*metabolism ; Cattle ; Cell Line ; Cell Membrane/metabolism ; Cilia/*metabolism ; Cyclic Nucleotide-Gated Cation Channels/*metabolism ; Humans ; Mice ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Nerve Tissue Proteins/metabolism ; Recombinant Fusion Proteins/metabolism ; Rod Cell Outer Segment/*metabolism ; Xenopus laevis
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2010-05-15
    Description: Clinical malaria is associated with the proliferation of Plasmodium parasites in human erythrocytes. The coordinated processes of parasite egress from and invasion into erythrocytes are rapid and tightly regulated. We have found that the plant-like calcium-dependent protein kinase PfCDPK5, which is expressed in invasive merozoite forms of Plasmodium falciparum, was critical for egress. Parasites deficient in PfCDPK5 arrested as mature schizonts with intact membranes, despite normal maturation of egress proteases and invasion ligands. Merozoites physically released from stalled schizonts were capable of invading new erythrocytes, separating the pathways of egress and invasion. The arrest was downstream of cyclic guanosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase (PfPKG) function and independent of protease processing. Thus, PfCDPK5 plays an essential role during the blood stage of malaria replication.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3109083/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3109083/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Dvorin, Jeffrey D -- Martyn, Derek C -- Patel, Saurabh D -- Grimley, Joshua S -- Collins, Christine R -- Hopp, Christine S -- Bright, A Taylor -- Westenberger, Scott -- Winzeler, Elizabeth -- Blackman, Michael J -- Baker, David A -- Wandless, Thomas J -- Duraisingh, Manoj T -- 086550/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- G1000779/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- GM073046/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- K08 AI087874/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- K12-HD000850/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- MC_U117532063/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- R01 AI057919/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI057919-05/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM073046/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01AI057919/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U117532063/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2010 May 14;328(5980):910-2. doi: 10.1126/science.1188191.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20466936" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Calcium-Binding Proteins/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors/metabolism ; Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology ; Erythrocytes/*parasitology ; Host-Parasite Interactions ; Humans ; Ligands ; Merozoites/enzymology/physiology ; Models, Biological ; Morpholines/metabolism ; Plasmodium falciparum/cytology/enzymology/growth & development/*physiology ; Protein Kinases/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Protozoan Proteins/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Pyridines/pharmacology ; Pyrroles/pharmacology ; Recombinant Fusion Proteins/chemistry/metabolism ; Schizonts/cytology/enzymology/physiology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-01-29
    Description: Epidemiological studies of the naturally transformable bacterial pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae have previously been confounded by high rates of recombination. Sequencing 240 isolates of the PMEN1 (Spain(23F)-1) multidrug-resistant lineage enabled base substitutions to be distinguished from polymorphisms arising through horizontal sequence transfer. More than 700 recombinations were detected, with genes encoding major antigens frequently affected. Among these were 10 capsule-switching events, one of which accompanied a population shift as vaccine-escape serotype 19A isolates emerged in the USA after the introduction of the conjugate polysaccharide vaccine. The evolution of resistance to fluoroquinolones, rifampicin, and macrolides was observed to occur on multiple occasions. This study details how genomic plasticity within lineages of recombinogenic bacteria can permit adaptation to clinical interventions over remarkably short time scales.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3648787/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3648787/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Croucher, Nicholas J -- Harris, Simon R -- Fraser, Christophe -- Quail, Michael A -- Burton, John -- van der Linden, Mark -- McGee, Lesley -- von Gottberg, Anne -- Song, Jae Hoon -- Ko, Kwan Soo -- Pichon, Bruno -- Baker, Stephen -- Parry, Christopher M -- Lambertsen, Lotte M -- Shahinas, Dea -- Pillai, Dylan R -- Mitchell, Timothy J -- Dougan, Gordon -- Tomasz, Alexander -- Klugman, Keith P -- Parkhill, Julian -- Hanage, William P -- Bentley, Stephen D -- 076962/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 076964/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- G0800596/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2011 Jan 28;331(6016):430-4. doi: 10.1126/science.1198545.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21273480" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adaptation, Physiological ; Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology ; Antigenic Variation ; DNA Transposable Elements ; Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial ; *Evolution, Molecular ; Genome, Bacterial ; Humans ; Molecular Epidemiology ; Phylogeny ; Phylogeography ; Pneumococcal Infections/drug therapy/*microbiology ; Pneumococcal Vaccines/immunology ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide ; Prophages/genetics ; *Recombination, Genetic ; Selection, Genetic ; Serotyping ; Streptococcus Phages/genetics ; Streptococcus pneumoniae/classification/drug effects/*genetics/immunology
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-04-09
    Description: Cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) is an essential negative regulator of T cell immune responses whose mechanism of action is the subject of debate. CTLA-4 shares two ligands (CD80 and CD86) with a stimulatory receptor, CD28. Here, we show that CTLA-4 can capture its ligands from opposing cells by a process of trans-endocytosis. After removal, these costimulatory ligands are degraded inside CTLA-4-expressing cells, resulting in impaired costimulation via CD28. Acquisition of CD86 from antigen-presenting cells is stimulated by T cell receptor engagement and observed in vitro and in vivo. These data reveal a mechanism of immune regulation in which CTLA-4 acts as an effector molecule to inhibit CD28 costimulation by the cell-extrinsic depletion of ligands, accounting for many of the known features of the CD28-CTLA-4 system.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3198051/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3198051/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Qureshi, Omar S -- Zheng, Yong -- Nakamura, Kyoko -- Attridge, Kesley -- Manzotti, Claire -- Schmidt, Emily M -- Baker, Jennifer -- Jeffery, Louisa E -- Kaur, Satdip -- Briggs, Zoe -- Hou, Tie Z -- Futter, Clare E -- Anderson, Graham -- Walker, Lucy S K -- Sansom, David M -- 17851/Arthritis Research UK/United Kingdom -- BB/D011000/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- BB/H013598/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0400931/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0401620/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0802382/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G1000213/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G9818340/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- Arthritis Research UK/United Kingdom -- Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2011 Apr 29;332(6029):600-3. doi: 10.1126/science.1202947. Epub 2011 Apr 7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Medical Research Council (MRC) Centre for Immune Regulation, School of Immunity and Infection, Institute of Biomedical Research, University of Birmingham Medical School, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21474713" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antigens, CD/*immunology/metabolism ; Antigens, CD28/*immunology ; Antigens, CD80/*immunology/metabolism ; Antigens, CD86/*immunology/metabolism ; CHO Cells ; CTLA-4 Antigen ; Cricetinae ; Cricetulus ; Dendritic Cells/immunology ; *Endocytosis ; Humans ; Jurkat Cells ; Ligands ; Lymphocyte Activation ; Mice ; Mice, Transgenic ; Models, Biological ; Ovalbumin/immunology ; Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/immunology ; Recombinant Fusion Proteins/metabolism ; T-Lymphocyte Subsets/*immunology/metabolism ; T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/immunology/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 1997-08-08
    Description: TRAIL (also called Apo2L) belongs to the tumor necrosis factor family, activates rapid apoptosis in tumor cells, and binds to the death-signaling receptor DR4. Two additional TRAIL receptors were identified. The receptor designated death receptor 5 (DR5) contained a cytoplasmic death domain and induced apoptosis much like DR4. The receptor designated decoy receptor 1 (DcR1) displayed properties of a glycophospholipid-anchored cell surface protein. DcR1 acted as a decoy receptor that inhibited TRAIL signaling. Thus, a cell surface mechanism exists for the regulation of cellular responsiveness to pro-apoptotic stimuli.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Sheridan, J P -- Marsters, S A -- Pitti, R M -- Gurney, A -- Skubatch, M -- Baldwin, D -- Ramakrishnan, L -- Gray, C L -- Baker, K -- Wood, W I -- Goddard, A D -- Godowski, P -- Ashkenazi, A -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1997 Aug 8;277(5327):818-21.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Molecular Oncology, Genentech, South San Francisco, CA 94080-4918, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9242611" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; *Apoptosis ; Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins ; Cell Membrane/metabolism ; Cells, Cultured ; GPI-Linked Proteins ; Glycosylphosphatidylinositols/metabolism ; HeLa Cells ; Humans ; Ligands ; Membrane Glycoproteins/*metabolism ; Molecular Sequence Data ; NF-kappa B/metabolism ; Receptors, TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand ; Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Signal Transduction ; TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand ; Transfection ; Tumor Cells, Cultured ; Tumor Necrosis Factor Decoy Receptors ; Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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