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  • Polymer and Materials Science  (1,207)
  • Humans  (329)
  • 1980-1984  (1,536)
  • 1
    Publication Date: 1981-12-04
    Description: Leucine catabolism is regulated by either of the first two degradative steps: (reversible) transamination to the keto acid or subsequent decarboxylation. A method is described to measure rates of leucine transamination, reamination, and keto acid oxidation. The method is applied directly to humans by infusing the nonradioactive tracer, L-[15N,1-13C]leucine. Leucine transamination was found to be operating several times faster than the keto acid decarboxylation and to be of equal magnitude in adult human males under two different dietary conditions, postabsorptive and fed. These results indicate that decarboxylation, not transamination, is the rate-limiting step in normal human leucine metabolism.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Matthews, D E -- Bier, D M -- Rennie, M J -- Edwards, R H -- Halliday, D -- Millward, D J -- Clugston, G A -- AM-25994/AM/NIADDK NIH HHS/ -- HD-10667/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- RR-00954/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1981 Dec 4;214(4525):1129-31.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7302583" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; Carbon Isotopes ; Humans ; Kinetics ; Leucine/*metabolism ; Male ; Models, Biological ; Nitrogen Isotopes ; Oxidation-Reduction
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0721-3115
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: In the poor solvent acetone/ethanol the viscosity of a 3% solution of 12.6% N pyro nitrocellulose is found to be related to the geometric mean of the number average and weight average molecular weights. The fractional increase in the viscosity of such a solution on the addition of lead ß-resorcylate is a function only of number average molecular weight. Once calibration has been made against osmotic pressure measurements and intrinsic viscosity, both number and weight average may be measured rapidly with an accuracy which is no less than that of the osmotic pressure and intrinsic viscosity measurements themselves.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: The deterioration of polyolefin, poly(ethylene terephthalate), and polyamide films under soil burial conditions extending up to 32 months has been investigated. Based on changes in their elongation at break, the films can be ranked in order of increasing sensitivity to degradation: Polyester ≃ polypropylene 〈 low-density polyethylene ≃ high-density polyethylene 〈 nylon 6.6. The degraded nylon 6.6 and polyethylene films were characterized by infrared and luminescence spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, as well as by wet analysis for hydroperoxides. From a comparison with the well-known oxidative sensitivity of nylon 6.6 in oxygenated water at slightly elevated temperatures, the rapid deterioration of nylon 6.6 film during soil burial was also concluded to be an oxidative process. The somewhat smaller, but significant, embrittlement of the polyethylenes studied could not be simply explained by thermal oxidation (with only trace oxidation products detectable) or microbiological attack (deterioration being unaffected by surface activation to enhance wettability).
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Optical-absorption, fluorescence, and Raman spectra for solutions, suspensions, and precipitates of poly(1,6-di-p-toluene sulfonoxy-2,4-hexadiyne) in and from nitrobenzene, acetone, and chloroform are presented. These are interpreted in terms of the occurrence of two forms of the polymer chain; a quasicrystalline form with properties close to those of single crystal polymer and a chain-extended form occurring in solution and colloidal particles, with an absorption energy of about 2.5 eV (20,000 cm-1). No evidence is found for the presence of very short polymer chains in partially polymerized monomer at low conversion. The relationship of these results to those for deformed single crystals is briefly discussed.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0142-2421
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Mean free paths for inelastic scattering (λ) of low energy electrons in poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) have been determined by measuring Al Kα excited C 1s and Si 2s photoelectron signal intensities as a function of ellipsometrically determined thicknesses of PMMA overlayers on silicon substrates. The λ values obtained are 29 ± 4 Å for 1196 eV electrons and 33 ± 5 Å for 1328 eV electrons. These data are necessary for the quantitative analysis of the surface region of PMMA and similar polymers by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The magnitude of the λ values determined indicates that XPS measurements can provide chemical information about the surface region of polymers, such as PMMA, in the depth range of ∼6 to 100 Å. The results of this study are compared and discussed with respect to λ values determined for other organic compounds.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Fire and Materials 7 (1983), S. 79-88 
    ISSN: 0308-0501
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: There are two major fire processes, an understanding of which is essential for effective fire safety design: (1) the conditions under which a combustible material may become involved in flaming combustion, and (2) the rate at which such a material, once involved, will provide an output of heat, smoke, toxic gases, etc., which can endanger people and property. The first process may be regarded as covering both ignition and spread of fire on materials; its complement is the way in which fire may become extinguished. It is necessary for such processes to bring in a characteristic of the basic combustion reaction which, directly or indirectly, expresses the reactivity of the combustion process. Thus pilot ignition is usually associated with an approximate surface fuel temperature. More basically, it is associated with a critical flow rate of volatiles and a critical heat loss from the flame, the latter being influenced by ambient oxygen and temperatures conditions as well as heat lost and gained by the fuel itself. The most important factor governing the production of dangerous product is the rate at which volatiles first (fuel controlled fires) and later air (air controlled fires) are fed into the flames. The reactivity is of less importance, although it may be one of the factors which control combustion efficiency. In general, the more efficient is the combustion the more heat is produced, but the less smoke and toxic gases are produced. Some of the main advances in the above areas are reviewed in this paper.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0360-6376
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Thermal degradation behavior of poly(1,3-phenylene isophthalamide) and poly(chloro-2,4-phenylene isophthalamide) was investigated with the aid of some appropriate model compounds. The pyrolysis products of these materials were identified by gas chromatography (GC), gas chromatography/Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (GC/FT-IR), and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The residual chars were characterized by IR spectroscopy. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was applied to study the effect of end-group concentration on the degradation characteristics of the two polyamides. Kinetic parameters that describe the thermal degradation of the polyamides were also evaluated by TGA. The results of this investigation suggest that the thermal decomposition of these aromatic polyamides involves homolytic as well as hydrolytic cleavages of the amide units.
    Additional Material: 13 Ill.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0021-9304
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: Numerous hypotheses exist to explain observed blood-materials interactions. It is the purpose of this article to test two popular hypotheses, namely, the minimum interfacial free energy hypothesis and the optimum polar/apolar ratio hypothesis. Methacrylate polymers and copolymers were characterized using the captive bubble underwater contact angle method; bulk water content was determined by gravimetric methods; streaming potential measurements were made; and surface roughness and possible particulate contamination were evaluated by reflected light microscopy. In vitro blood tests include whole blood clotting time measurements on polymer-coated tubes; centrifugal force platelet adhesion on polymer-coated coverslips; and a measure of the partial thromboplastin time, Russell's viper venom time (Stypven time), and the prothrombin time of native whole blood exposed to polymer-coated microscope slides. Results suggest that platelet adhesion correlates in the opposite direction of whole blood clotting time and partial thromboplastin time, emphasizing the need for a multiparameter approach to blood-materials testing. Based on these tests the minimum interfacial free energy hypothesis is not supported. In fact, the data suggest the opposite to be true. It is apparent that platelet adhesion can be a misleading indicator of blood compatibility. Neither hypotheses can explain the apparent conflict between the platelet adhesion data and the coagulation time data.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0021-9304
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: Porous high-density polyethylene specimens were implanted in the femurs of mongrel canines. At the end of the residency period (3 or 6 months), the animals were sacrificed and the implants were retrieved. The work-of-fracture of the implant specimens was then determined using the technique of Tattersall and Tappin. The work required to fracture a specimen in three-point bending by controlled crack propagation through a triangular cross section was obtained directly from the load-deflection curve. The area of the resulting fracture surface was measured by macro-photographic techniques, and the work-of-fracture was calculated as work per unit area. The implants were subsequently sectioned and examined microradiographically to determine the extent of bone ingrowth. Bone specimens adjacent to the implants and porous high-density polyethylene controls (no ingrowth) were also tested to determine their work-of-fracture. The results showed that bone adjacent to the implant specimens had a higher work-of-fracture than normal medial, canine femoral bone and was not appreciably different from the composite. The work-of-fracture of porous high-density polyethylene was not significantly increased by an increase in bone infiltration, and this anomalous behavior was attributed to a degradation of the polyethylene during implant residence. Control studies supported this hypothesis.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 10
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    Unknown
    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1980-05-30
    Description: Genetic types of plasminogen were determined from a donor and a recipient before and after hepatic homotransplantation. Examination of the plasminogen types demonstrated that the liver is the principal site of synthesis of human plasminogen.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2981173/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2981173/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Raum, D -- Marcus, D -- Alper, C A -- Levey, R -- Taylor, P D -- Starzl, T E -- R01 AM007772/AM/NIADDK NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 May 30;208(4447):1036-7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6990488" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Female ; Humans ; Liver/*metabolism ; Liver Transplantation ; Male ; Plasminogen/*biosynthesis/genetics ; Polymorphism, Genetic ; Transplantation, Homologous
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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