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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2007-05-05
    Description: The global endemic of cardiovascular diseases calls for improved risk assessment and treatment. Here, we describe an association between myocardial infarction (MI) and a common sequence variant on chromosome 9p21. This study included a total of 4587 cases and 12,767 controls. The identified variant, adjacent to the tumor suppressor genes CDKN2A and CDKN2B, was associated with the disease with high significance. Approximately 21% of individuals in the population are homozygous for this variant, and their estimated risk of suffering myocardial infarction is 1.64 times as great as that of noncarriers. The corresponding risk is 2.02 times as great for early-onset cases. The population attributable risk is 21% for MI in general and 31% for early-onset cases.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Helgadottir, Anna -- Thorleifsson, Gudmar -- Manolescu, Andrei -- Gretarsdottir, Solveig -- Blondal, Thorarinn -- Jonasdottir, Aslaug -- Jonasdottir, Adalbjorg -- Sigurdsson, Asgeir -- Baker, Adam -- Palsson, Arnar -- Masson, Gisli -- Gudbjartsson, Daniel F -- Magnusson, Kristinn P -- Andersen, Karl -- Levey, Allan I -- Backman, Valgerdur M -- Matthiasdottir, Sigurborg -- Jonsdottir, Thorbjorg -- Palsson, Stefan -- Einarsdottir, Helga -- Gunnarsdottir, Steinunn -- Gylfason, Arnaldur -- Vaccarino, Viola -- Hooper, W Craig -- Reilly, Muredach P -- Granger, Christopher B -- Austin, Harland -- Rader, Daniel J -- Shah, Svati H -- Quyyumi, Arshed A -- Gulcher, Jeffrey R -- Thorgeirsson, Gudmundur -- Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur -- Kong, Augustine -- Stefansson, Kari -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2007 Jun 8;316(5830):1491-3. Epub 2007 May 3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉deCODE genetics, Sturlugata 8, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17478679" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Age of Onset ; Aged ; Case-Control Studies ; Chromosome Mapping ; Chromosomes, Human, Pair 9/*genetics ; Coronary Artery Disease/genetics ; Female ; Genes, p16 ; *Genetic Predisposition to Disease ; *Genetic Variation ; Genotype ; Haplotypes ; Heterozygote ; Homozygote ; Humans ; Linkage Disequilibrium ; Male ; Middle Aged ; Myocardial Infarction/*genetics ; *Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide ; Risk Factors
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2010-10-29
    Description: Meiotic recombinations contribute to genetic diversity by yielding new combinations of alleles. Recently, high-resolution recombination maps were inferred from high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data using linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns that capture historical recombination events. The use of these maps has been demonstrated by the identification of recombination hotspots and associated motifs, and the discovery that the PRDM9 gene affects the proportion of recombinations occurring at hotspots. However, these maps provide no information about individual or sex differences. Moreover, locus-specific demographic factors like natural selection can bias LD-based estimates of recombination rate. Existing genetic maps based on family data avoid these shortcomings, but their resolution is limited by relatively few meioses and a low density of markers. Here we used genome-wide SNP data from 15,257 parent-offspring pairs to construct the first recombination maps based on directly observed recombinations with a resolution that is effective down to 10 kilobases (kb). Comparing male and female maps reveals that about 15% of hotspots in one sex are specific to that sex. Although male recombinations result in more shuffling of exons within genes, female recombinations generate more new combinations of nearby genes. We discover novel associations between recombination characteristics of individuals and variants in the PRDM9 gene and we identify new recombination hotspots. Comparisons of our maps with two LD-based maps inferred from data of HapMap populations of Utah residents with ancestry from northern and western Europe (CEU) and Yoruba in Ibadan, Nigeria (YRI) reveal population differences previously masked by noise and map differences at regions previously described as targets of natural selection.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kong, Augustine -- Thorleifsson, Gudmar -- Gudbjartsson, Daniel F -- Masson, Gisli -- Sigurdsson, Asgeir -- Jonasdottir, Aslaug -- Walters, G Bragi -- Jonasdottir, Adalbjorg -- Gylfason, Arnaldur -- Kristinsson, Kari Th -- Gudjonsson, Sigurjon A -- Frigge, Michael L -- Helgason, Agnar -- Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur -- Stefansson, Kari -- England -- Nature. 2010 Oct 28;467(7319):1099-103. doi: 10.1038/nature09525.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉deCODE genetics, Sturlugata 8, 101 Reykjavik, Iceland. kong@decode.is〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20981099" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Alleles ; Chromosomes, Human/*genetics ; DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics ; Europe/ethnology ; Exons/genetics ; Female ; Genetics, Population ; Haplotypes/genetics ; Heterozygote ; Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase/genetics ; Humans ; Linkage Disequilibrium/genetics ; Male ; Meiosis/genetics ; Nigeria/ethnology ; Pedigree ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics ; Recombination, Genetic/*genetics ; Sample Size ; Selection, Genetic/genetics ; *Sex Characteristics ; Utah
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-05-07
    Description: Low bone mineral density (BMD) is used as a parameter of osteoporosis. Genome-wide association studies of BMD have hitherto focused on BMD as a quantitative trait, yielding common variants of small effects that contribute to the population diversity in BMD. Here we use BMD as a dichotomous trait, searching for variants that may have a direct effect on the risk of pathologically low BMD rather than on the regulation of BMD in the healthy population. Through whole-genome sequencing of Icelandic individuals, we found a rare nonsense mutation within the leucine-rich-repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 4 (LGR4) gene (c.376C〉T) that is strongly associated with low BMD, and with osteoporotic fractures. This mutation leads to termination of LGR4 at position 126 and fully disrupts its function. The c.376C〉T mutation is also associated with electrolyte imbalance, late onset of menarche and reduced testosterone levels, as well as an increased risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin and biliary tract cancer. Interestingly, the phenotype of carriers of the c.376C〉T mutation overlaps that of Lgr4 mutant mice.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Styrkarsdottir, Unnur -- Thorleifsson, Gudmar -- Sulem, Patrick -- Gudbjartsson, Daniel F -- Sigurdsson, Asgeir -- Jonasdottir, Aslaug -- Jonasdottir, Adalbjorg -- Oddsson, Asmundur -- Helgason, Agnar -- Magnusson, Olafur T -- Walters, G Bragi -- Frigge, Michael L -- Helgadottir, Hafdis T -- Johannsdottir, Hrefna -- Bergsteinsdottir, Kristin -- Ogmundsdottir, Margret H -- Center, Jacqueline R -- Nguyen, Tuan V -- Eisman, John A -- Christiansen, Claus -- Steingrimsson, Erikur -- Jonasson, Jon G -- Tryggvadottir, Laufey -- Eyjolfsson, Gudmundur I -- Theodors, Asgeir -- Jonsson, Thorvaldur -- Ingvarsson, Thorvaldur -- Olafsson, Isleifur -- Rafnar, Thorunn -- Kong, Augustine -- Sigurdsson, Gunnar -- Masson, Gisli -- Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur -- Stefansson, Kari -- HL-102923/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL-102924/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL-102925/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL-102926/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL-103010/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 May 23;497(7450):517-20. doi: 10.1038/nature12124. Epub 2013 May 5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉deCODE Genetics/Amgen, 101 Reykjavik, Iceland. unnurth@decode.is〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23644456" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Australia ; Biliary Tract Neoplasms/*genetics ; Bone Density/*genetics ; Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/*genetics ; Codon, Nonsense/*genetics ; Denmark ; Down-Regulation/genetics ; Female ; Heterozygote ; Humans ; Iceland ; Male ; Menarche/genetics ; Mice ; Mice, Knockout ; Osteoporotic Fractures/*genetics ; Phenotype ; Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled/chemistry/deficiency/*genetics/metabolism ; Skin Neoplasms/*genetics ; Testosterone/analysis ; Water-Electrolyte Imbalance/*genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-09-02
    Description: Both obesity and being underweight have been associated with increased mortality. Underweight, defined as a body mass index (BMI) 〈/= 18.5 kg per m(2) in adults and 〈/= -2 standard deviations from the mean in children, is the main sign of a series of heterogeneous clinical conditions including failure to thrive, feeding and eating disorder and/or anorexia nervosa. In contrast to obesity, few genetic variants underlying these clinical conditions have been reported. We previously showed that hemizygosity of a approximately 600-kilobase (kb) region on the short arm of chromosome 16 causes a highly penetrant form of obesity that is often associated with hyperphagia and intellectual disabilities. Here we show that the corresponding reciprocal duplication is associated with being underweight. We identified 138 duplication carriers (including 132 novel cases and 108 unrelated carriers) from individuals clinically referred for developmental or intellectual disabilities (DD/ID) or psychiatric disorders, or recruited from population-based cohorts. These carriers show significantly reduced postnatal weight and BMI. Half of the boys younger than five years are underweight with a probable diagnosis of failure to thrive, whereas adult duplication carriers have an 8.3-fold increased risk of being clinically underweight. We observe a trend towards increased severity in males, as well as a depletion of male carriers among non-medically ascertained cases. These features are associated with an unusually high frequency of selective and restrictive eating behaviours and a significant reduction in head circumference. Each of the observed phenotypes is the converse of one reported in carriers of deletions at this locus. The phenotypes correlate with changes in transcript levels for genes mapping within the duplication but not in flanking regions. The reciprocal impact of these 16p11.2 copy-number variants indicates that severe obesity and being underweight could have mirror aetiologies, possibly through contrasting effects on energy balance.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3637175/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3637175/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Jacquemont, Sebastien -- Reymond, Alexandre -- Zufferey, Flore -- Harewood, Louise -- Walters, Robin G -- Kutalik, Zoltan -- Martinet, Danielle -- Shen, Yiping -- Valsesia, Armand -- Beckmann, Noam D -- Thorleifsson, Gudmar -- Belfiore, Marco -- Bouquillon, Sonia -- Campion, Dominique -- de Leeuw, Nicole -- de Vries, Bert B A -- Esko, Tonu -- Fernandez, Bridget A -- Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando -- Fernandez-Real, Jose Manuel -- Gratacos, Monica -- Guilmatre, Audrey -- Hoyer, Juliane -- Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta -- Kooy, R Frank -- Kurg, Ants -- Le Caignec, Cedric -- Mannik, Katrin -- Platt, Orah S -- Sanlaville, Damien -- Van Haelst, Mieke M -- Villatoro Gomez, Sergi -- Walha, Faida -- Wu, Bai-Lin -- Yu, Yongguo -- Aboura, Azzedine -- Addor, Marie-Claude -- Alembik, Yves -- Antonarakis, Stylianos E -- Arveiler, Benoit -- Barth, Magalie -- Bednarek, Nathalie -- Bena, Frederique -- Bergmann, Sven -- Beri, Mylene -- Bernardini, Laura -- Blaumeiser, Bettina -- Bonneau, Dominique -- Bottani, Armand -- Boute, Odile -- Brunner, Han G -- Cailley, Dorothee -- Callier, Patrick -- Chiesa, Jean -- Chrast, Jacqueline -- Coin, Lachlan -- Coutton, Charles -- Cuisset, Jean-Marie -- Cuvellier, Jean-Christophe -- David, Albert -- de Freminville, Benedicte -- Delobel, Bruno -- Delrue, Marie-Ange -- Demeer, Benedicte -- Descamps, Dominique -- Didelot, Gerard -- Dieterich, Klaus -- Disciglio, Vittoria -- Doco-Fenzy, Martine -- Drunat, Severine -- Duban-Bedu, Benedicte -- Dubourg, Christele -- El-Sayed Moustafa, Julia S -- Elliott, Paul -- Faas, Brigitte H W -- Faivre, Laurence -- Faudet, Anne -- Fellmann, Florence -- Ferrarini, Alessandra -- Fisher, Richard -- Flori, Elisabeth -- Forer, Lukas -- Gaillard, Dominique -- Gerard, Marion -- Gieger, Christian -- Gimelli, Stefania -- Gimelli, Giorgio -- Grabe, Hans J -- Guichet, Agnes -- Guillin, Olivier -- Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa -- Heron, Delphine -- Hippolyte, Loyse -- Holder, Muriel -- Homuth, Georg -- Isidor, Bertrand -- Jaillard, Sylvie -- Jaros, Zdenek -- Jimenez-Murcia, Susana -- Helas, Geraldine Joly -- Jonveaux, Philippe -- Kaksonen, Satu -- Keren, Boris -- Kloss-Brandstatter, Anita -- Knoers, Nine V A M -- Koolen, David A -- Kroisel, Peter M -- Kronenberg, Florian -- Labalme, Audrey -- Landais, Emilie -- Lapi, Elisabetta -- Layet, Valerie -- Legallic, Solenn -- Leheup, Bruno -- Leube, Barbara -- Lewis, Suzanne -- Lucas, Josette -- MacDermot, Kay D -- Magnusson, Pall -- Marshall, Christian -- Mathieu-Dramard, Michele -- McCarthy, Mark I -- Meitinger, Thomas -- Mencarelli, Maria Antonietta -- Merla, Giuseppe -- Moerman, Alexandre -- Mooser, Vincent -- Morice-Picard, Fanny -- Mucciolo, Mafalda -- Nauck, Matthias -- Ndiaye, Ndeye Coumba -- Nordgren, Ann -- Pasquier, Laurent -- Petit, Florence -- Pfundt, Rolph -- Plessis, Ghislaine -- Rajcan-Separovic, Evica -- Ramelli, Gian Paolo -- Rauch, Anita -- Ravazzolo, Roberto -- Reis, Andre -- Renieri, Alessandra -- Richart, Cristobal -- Ried, Janina S -- Rieubland, Claudine -- Roberts, Wendy -- Roetzer, Katharina M -- Rooryck, Caroline -- Rossi, Massimiliano -- Saemundsen, Evald -- Satre, Veronique -- Schurmann, Claudia -- Sigurdsson, Engilbert -- Stavropoulos, Dimitri J -- Stefansson, Hreinn -- Tengstrom, Carola -- Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur -- Tinahones, Francisco J -- Touraine, Renaud -- Vallee, Louis -- van Binsbergen, Ellen -- Van der Aa, Nathalie -- Vincent-Delorme, Catherine -- Visvikis-Siest, Sophie -- Vollenweider, Peter -- Volzke, Henry -- Vulto-van Silfhout, Anneke T -- Waeber, Gerard -- Wallgren-Pettersson, Carina -- Witwicki, Robert M -- Zwolinksi, Simon -- Andrieux, Joris -- Estivill, Xavier -- Gusella, James F -- Gustafsson, Omar -- Metspalu, Andres -- Scherer, Stephen W -- Stefansson, Kari -- Blakemore, Alexandra I F -- Beckmann, Jacques S -- Froguel, Philippe -- 090532/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 1RL1MH083268-01/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- 5R01HL087679-02/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- 5R01MH63706:02/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- AS2173/Autism Speaks/ -- G0500539/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0600705/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0801056/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- GM061354/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- MH071425/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- MOP 74502/Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2011 Aug 31;478(7367):97-102. doi: 10.1038/nature10406.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Service of Medical Genetics, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, 1011 Lausanne, Switzerland.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21881559" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adolescent ; Adult ; Aged ; Aging ; Body Height/genetics ; *Body Mass Index ; Case-Control Studies ; Child ; Child, Preschool ; Chromosomes, Human, Pair 16/*genetics ; Cohort Studies ; Comparative Genomic Hybridization ; Developmental Disabilities/genetics ; Energy Metabolism/genetics ; Europe ; Female ; Gene Dosage/*genetics ; Gene Duplication/genetics ; Gene Expression Profiling ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics ; Genome-Wide Association Study ; Head/anatomy & histology ; Heterozygote ; Humans ; Infant ; Infant, Newborn ; Male ; Mental Disorders/genetics ; Middle Aged ; Mutation/genetics ; North America ; Obesity/*genetics ; *Phenotype ; RNA, Messenger/analysis/genetics ; Sequence Deletion/genetics ; Thinness/*genetics ; Transcription, Genetic ; Young Adult
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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