Key words East Antarctica
Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Abstract The Heimefrontfjella mountains, Western Dronning Maud Land (East Antarctica), are dominantly composed of Grenville-aged (∼1.1 Ga) rocks, which were reworked during the Pan -African orogeny at ∼500 Ma. Three discontinuity-bounded Grenville-aged terranes have been recognized namely (from north to south) the Kottas, Sivorg and Vardeklettane terranes. The terranes contain their own characteristic lithological assemblages, although each is made up of an early supracrustal sequence of metavolcanic and/or metasedimentary gneisses, intruded by various (predominantly granitoid) suites. No older basement upon which the protoliths of these older gneisses were deposited has been recognized. In each terrane the older layered gneisses were intruded by various plutonic suites ranging in age from ∼1150 to ∼1000 Ma. The Vardeklettane terrane is characterized by abundant charnockites and two-pyroxene granulite facies parageneses in metabasites, whereas the Sivorg and Kottas terranes were metamorphosed to amphibolite facies grade. P–T estimates show that peak metamorphic conditions changed from ∼600 °C at 8 kbar in the south, to ∼700 °C at 4 kbar in the northern Sivorg terrane. Regional greenschist retrogression of high-grade assemblages may be of Pan-African age. The Heimefrontfjella terranes were juxtaposed and pervasively deformed during a complex and protracted period of E–W collision orogenesis in a transpressive regime at ∼1.1 Ga. This is manifest as early, gently dipping thrust-related shear fabrics (D1), succeeded by the initiation of an important (D2) steep dextral shear zone (Heimefront shear zone, HSZ), during which the early fabrics and structures were steepened and rotated in an anticlockwise sense. The HSZ is a curvilinear structure which changes from a dextral oblique strike-slip lateral ramp in the north to a steep dip-slip frontal ramp in the south, where it forms the boundary between the Sivorg and Vardeklettane terranes. The Pan-African event is manifested as discrete, low- to medium-temperature ductile to brittle shears (D3) and numerous K/Ar cooling ages.
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