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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-07-18
    Description: We evaluate the labor market and distributional effects of an increase in the early retirement age (ERA) from 60 to 63 for women. We use a regression discontinuity design which exploits the immediate increase in the ERA between women born in 1951 and 1952. The analysis is based on the German micro census which includes about 370,000 households per year. We focus on heterogeneous labor market effects on the individual and on the household level and we study the distributional implications using net household income. In this respect we extend the previous literature which mainly studied employment effects on the individual level. Our results show sizable labor market effects which strongly differ by subgroups. We document larger employment effects for women who cannot rely on other income on the household level, e.g. women with a low income partner. The distributional analysis shows on average no significant effects on female or household income. This result holds as well for heterogeneous groups: Even for the most vulnerable groups, such as single women, women without higher education, or low partner income, we do not find significant reductions in income. One reason for this result is program substitution.
    Keywords: J14 ; J18 ; J22 ; J26 ; H31 ; ddc:330 ; retirement age ; pension reform ; labor supply ; early retirement ; distributional effects ; spillover effects ; household
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-11-27
    Description: We evaluate the labor market and distributional effects of an increase in the early retirement age (ERA) from 60 to 63 for women. We use a regression discontinuity design which exploits the immediate increase in the ERA between women born in 1951 and 1952. The analysis is based on the German micro census which includes about 370,000 households per year. We focus on heterogeneous labor market effects on the individual and on the household level and we study the distributional implications using net household income. In this respect we extend the previous literature which mainly studied employment effects on the individual level. Our results show sizable labor market effects which strongly differ by subgroups. We document larger employment effects for women who cannot rely on other income on the household level, e.g. women with a low income partner. The distributional analysis shows on average no significant effects on female or household income. This result holds as well for heterogeneous groups: Even for the most vulnerable groups, such as single women, women without higher education, or low partner income, we do not find significant reductions in income. One reason for this result is program substitution.
    Keywords: J14 ; J18 ; J22 ; J26 ; H31 ; ddc:330 ; retirement age ; pension reform ; labor supply ; early retirement ; distributional effects ; spillover effects ; household
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2017-02-22
    Description: Die gemeinsame Besteuerung von Ehepartnern im Rahmen des Ehegattensplittings ist nach wie vor ein großes Hemmniss der Erwerbsbeteiligung von verheirateten Frauen am Arbeitsmarkt in Deutschland. In ihrem aktuellen Finanzkonzept fordert die SPD, das Ehegattensplitting durch eine Individualbesteuerung mit Unterhaltsabzug zu ersetzen, entsprechend den bereits geltenden Regelungen für geschiedene Eheleute. Simulationsrechnungen des DIW Berlin zeigen, dass eine solche Reform nur geringe Verteilungs- und Arbeitsangebotseffekte hätte. Eine reine Individualbesteuerung dagegen würde nicht nur zu erheblichen Steuermehreinnahmen führen, sondern auch die Erwerbsbeteiligung von verheirateten Frauen deutlich erhöhen. Nimmt man das Ziel einer stärkeren Integration verheirateter Frauen in den Arbeitsmarkt ernst, müsste die Politik das derzeitige Ehegattensplitting durch eine reine Individualbesteuerung ersetzen.
    Keywords: H24 ; H31 ; J22 ; ddc:330 ; Working incentives ; joint taxation of couples ; female labor supply
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2016-02-08
    Description: The joint taxation of married couples in Germany with full income splitting is still a major hindrance to the participation of married women in the labor market. In their current financial proposals, the SPD (Social Democratic Party) is calling for income splitting for married couples to be replaced by individual taxation with maintenance deductions, in accordance with existing schemes for divorced spouses. Simulations implemented by DIW Berlin show that such a reform would only have limited effects on distribution and labor supply. Pure individual taxation, however, would not only lead to significant additional tax revenue but would also considerably increase the number of married women participating in the labor market. If politicians take the goal of greater integration of married women in the labor market seriously, then the current income splitting for married couples would have to be replaced by individuation taxation.
    Keywords: H24 ; H31 ; J22 ; ddc:330 ; working incentives ; joint taxation of couples ; female labor supply
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2016-02-08
    Description: Mit der bundesweiten Einführung des Elterngeldes für Geburten ab dem 1.1.2007 wurde das Erziehungsgeld abgelöst. An die Stelle eines Transfers, der nach Prüfung der Bedürftigkeit gezahlt wurde, trat eine Einkommensersatzleistung. Zudem wurde die Bezugsdauer von maximal zwei Jahren auf in der Regel 12 oder 14 Monate gekürzt. Mit zwei Partnermonaten wurden zusätzlich Anreize für Eltern geschaffen, die Elternzeit untereinander aufzuteilen. Nachdem frühere Reformen des Erziehungsgeldes oder der Elternzeit in der Regel dazu führten, dass Mütter zunehmend länger dem Arbeitsmarkt fern blieben, sind mit dieser Reform erstmalig für bestimmte Gruppen Anreize geschaffen, früher in das Erwerbsleben zurückzukehren. Vier Jahre nach Einführung des Elterngelds hat das DIW Berlin die Auswirkungen des Elterngeldes auf die Erwerbstätigkeit von Müttern untersucht. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass die Erwerbstätigkeit von Müttern mit Kindern im ersten Lebensjahr zwar zurückgegangen ist. Mütter mit Kindern im zweiten Lebensjahr haben jedoch aufgrund der Einführung des Elterngeldes eine höhere Wahrscheinlichkeit, in den Beruf zurückzukehren. Die positiven Effekte der Erwerbsbeteiligung finden wir insbesondere für Mütter mit niedrigen Einkommen und für Mütter in Ostdeutschland.
    Keywords: J22 ; H31 ; ddc:330 ; labor supply ; parental leave ; policy evaluation
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 6
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-08
    Description: Die Tochter und der Sohn, die neben der Arbeit ihre Eltern pflegen oder sich um ihre nicht mehr mobile Nachbarin kümmern: Informelle Pflegetätigkeiten sind eine zentrale Stütze des deutschen Pflegesystems - insbesondere angesichts der alternden Bevölkerung und des damit einhergehenden steigenden Pflegebedarfs. Zwischen fünf und sechs Prozent aller Erwachsenen leisten regelmäßig informelle Pflege, wie das DIW Berlin auf Grundlage von Daten des Sozio-oekonomischen Panels (SOEP) für die Jahre 2001 bis 2012 berechnet hat. Rund 60 Prozent dieser Frauen und Männer sind im erwerbsfähigen Alter. Der Anteil der Erwerbstätigen an allen informell Pflegenden unter 65 Jahren ist von knapp 53 auf fast 66 Prozent gestiegen. Bei den Vollzeitbeschäftigten war der Anstieg stärker als bei den Teilzeitbeschäftigten, wenngleich Vollzeitbeschäftigte im Durchschnitt wesentlich seltener Pflege und Beruf kombinieren. Es stellt sich die Frage, wie Erwerbs- und Pflegetätigkeit besser miteinander vereinbart werden können. Denn der Bedarf an (informeller) Pflege wird infolge des demografischen Wandels weiter steigen. Der vorliegende Bericht zeigt, dass informell Pflegende allgemein und mit der sozialen Sicherung weniger zufrieden sind als Personen, die keine Pflege leisten. Allerdings geben die Daten an dieser Stelle keinen Hinweis darauf, dass eine gleichzeitige Erwerbstätigkeit diesen Effekt verstärkt.
    Description: The daughter and son who take care of their parents or look after their neighbor who is no longer mobile while working at the same time: informal care is a central pillar of the German care system - particularly with regard to the aging population and the resultant increase in the demand for care. Between five and six percent of all adults regularly provide informal care according to DIW Berlin's calculations for the years 2001 to 2012 on the basis of data from the Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP). Around 60 percent of these women and men are of working age. The proportion of people in employment among all informal carers below 65 years of age has risen from just under 53 to almost 66 percent. The increase was greater among full-time than part-time employees although those in full-time work combine caregiving and career significantly less frequently on average. The question arises how work and caregiving could be better reconciled because the need for (informal) care will continue to increase due to demographic change. The present report shows that informal carers are less satisfied in general and also with social security than those who do not provide informal care. However, the data give no indication that working at the same time amplifies this effect.
    Keywords: J22 ; H31 ; J11 ; ddc:330 ; long-term care ; labor supply ; life-satisfaction
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2016-02-08
    Description: Parental leave and subsidized child care are prominent examples of family policies supporting the reconciliation of family life and labor market careers for mothers. In this paper, we combine different empirical strategies to evaluate the employment effects of these policies for mothers in Germany. In particular we estimate a structural labor supply model and exploit a natural experiment, i.e. the reform of parental leave benefits. By exploiting and combining the advantages of the different methods, i.e the internal validity of the natural experiment and the external validity of the structural model, we can go beyond evaluation studies restricted to one particular methodology. Our findings suggest that a combination of parental leave benefits and subsidized child care leads to sizable employment effects of mothers.
    Keywords: H31 ; J22 ; C52 ; ddc:330 ; labor supply ; parental leave benefits ; childcare costs ; structural model ; natural experiment
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2016-06-22
    Description: Parental leave and subsidized child care are prominent examples of family policies supporting the reconciliation of family life and labor market careers for mothers. In this paper, we combine different empirical strategies to evaluate the employment effects of these policies for mothers in Germany. In particular we estimate a structural labor supply model and exploit a natural experiment, i.e. the reform of parental leave benefits. By exploiting and combining the advantages of the different methods, i.e the internal validity of the natural experiment and the external validity of the structural model, we can go beyond evaluation studies restricted to one particular methodology. Our findings suggest that a combination of parental leave benefits and subsidized child care leads to sizable employment effects of mothers.
    Keywords: J22 ; H31 ; C52 ; ddc:330 ; labor supply ; parental leave benefits ; childcare costs ; structural model ; natural experiment
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 9
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2016-07-23
    Description: Unser Beitrag nimmt die zu erwartenden Effekte des Elterngeld Plus und der Partnerschaftsbonusmonate in den Blick. Dem Reformziel entsprechend betrachten wir zum einen die Anreize für die Erwerbsbeteiligung von Müttern im ersten und zweiten Jahr nach der Geburt und zum anderen die möglichen Wirkungen auf die Beteiligung der Väter an der Elterngeldnutzung. Das Elterngeld wurde inzwischen acht Jahre lang erprobt, und die Einführung des Elterngeld Plus reagiert auf mittlerweile vorliegende Erfahrungen und Evaluationsergebnisse, auf die sich auch unser eigener Beitrag stützt.
    Description: Germany introduced parental leave benefits eight years ago. The reform of the parental leave scheme in 2015 reacts to the experiences with this new family policy instrument. The main objective of the 2015 reform was to improve the situation of parents who plan to start working before parental leave benefits expire. We analyze the potential impact of the new reform on maternal labor supply and leave take-up of fathers. In particular we focus on the improvement for part-time leave and the new bonus that is available for four months if both spouses work between 25 and 30 hours per week.
    Keywords: J22 ; H31 ; J12 ; J16 ; ddc:330 ; parental leave reform ; daddy months ; maternal labor supply ; gender equality
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 10
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2017-08-28
    Description: Germany introduced a new mandatory insurance for long-term care in 1995 as part of its social security system. It replaced a system based on means tested social welfare. Benefits from the long-term care insurance are not means tested and depend on the required level of care. The insurance provides both benefits in kind and cash benefits. The new scheme improved the situation for households to organize informal care at home. This was one goal of the reform since policymakers view informal care as a cost-saving alternative to formal care. This view however neglects possible opportunity costs of reduced labor supply of carers. We exploit this reform as a quasi-experiment and examine its effect on the labor supply of caregivers who live in the same household as the care recipient. We find strong negative labor market effects for men but not for women. We conduct a series of robustness tests and find results to be stable.
    Keywords: J22 ; H31 ; I13 ; ddc:330 ; labor supply ; long-term care ; long-term care insurance ; natural experiment ; quasi-experiment
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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