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  • Growth  (4)
  • Storage  (3)
  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Trees 1 (1987), S. 225-231 
    ISSN: 1432-2285
    Keywords: Larix ; Heterosis ; Growth ; Branching pattern ; Needle density
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary Among 33-year-old forest trees ofLarix decidua, L. leptolepis andL. decidua x leptolepis, the hybrid possessed an above-ground biomass which was three times greater, although all larches displayed similar relative distributions of biomass. At a “relative growth rate” slightly lower than in the parent species, hybrid larch achieved twice the annual carbon gain, increment in stem length and above-ground production, and its foliage-related stem growth was higher than in European (L. decidua) but similar to Japanese (L. leptolepis) larch. A similar “relative growth efficiency” and foliage-related total above-ground production in all trees did reflect the similarity of photosynthetic capacity of the hybrid found at the leaf level. While the lengths of lateral twigs on hybrid branches were intermediate between the European larch with short, and the Japanese larch with large, twigs the hybrid possessed the longest branches with the highest needle biomass. This resulted in a crown structure of the hybrid crown similar to the Japanese larch together with a high needle density on branches as in the European larch. In total, the foliage biomass per crown length was about 30% higher in hybrid larch than in both of the parent species. Thus, the high carbon input for the stem heterosis was based on a “complementation principle” of advantageous parent features at the crown level. Similar slopes of foliage against sapwood area of stem and branches did not indicate a special need for a thick hybrid stem with respect to water transport.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: Biennial plants ; Carbon partitioning ; Nitrogen partitioning ; Storage ; Harvest index
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Growth and nitrogen partitioning were investigated in the biennial monocarp Arctium tomentosum in the field, in plants growing at natural light conditions, in plants in which approximately half the leaf area was removed and in plants growing under 20% of incident irradiation. Growth quantities were derived from splined cubic polynomial exponential functions fitted to dry matter, leaf area and nitrogen data. Main emphasis was made to understanding of the significance of carbohydrate and nitrogen storage of a large tuber during a 2-years' life cycle, especially the effect of storage on biomass and seed yield in the second season. Biomass partitioning favours growth of leaves in the first year rosette stage. Roots store carbohydrates at a constant rate and increase storage of carbohydrates and nitrogen when the leaves decay at the end of the first season. In the second season the reallocation of carbohydrates from storage is relatively small, but reallocation of nitrogen is very large. Carbohydrate storage just primes the growth of the first leaves in the early growing season, nitrogen storage contributes 20% to the total nitrogen requirement during the 2nd season. The efficiency of carbohydrate storage for conversion into new biomass is about 40%. Nitrogen is reallocated 3 times in the second year, namely from the tuber to rosette leaves and further to flower stem leaves and eventually into seeds. The harvest index for nitrogen is 0.73, whereas for biomass it is only 0.19.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: Forest decline ; Carbohydrates ; Picea abies ; Growth ; Leaf area index
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary This is the first in a series of papers on the growth, photosynthetic rate, water and nutrient relations, root distribution and mycorrhizal frequency of two Norway spruce forests at different stages of decline. One of the stands was composed of green trees only while the other included trees ranging in appearance from full green crowns to thin crowns with yellow needles. In this paper we compare the growth and carbohydrate relations of the two stands and examine relationships among growth variables in ten plots. The declining stand produced 65 percent of the wood per ground area compared with the stand in which all trees were green because its foliage produced less wood at any level of leaf area index. The difference in foliage efficiency between the sites could not be explained by differeneces in climate, competition or stand structure. The declining stand appeared to have lower carbon gain as indicated by a smaller increase in reserve carbohydrates before bud break, and weaker sinks for carbohydrates as indicated by less use of the stored carbohydrates than the healthy stand. Thus, growth reduction was probably related to factors which affect both photosynthesis and, even more, the sinks for carbohydrate.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: Carbohydrate ; Growth ; Nitrogen ; Phaseolus lunatus ; Storage
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Growth, photosynthesis, and storage of nitrogen (N) and total non-structural carbohydrates (TNC) of a perennial wild type and an annual cultivar of lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) were examined at different light intensities and N supplies. Relative growth rate and photosynthesis increased with light and N availability. N limitation enhanced biomass allocation into root rather than into shoot, while light limitation enhanced growth of leaf area. The TNC concentrations increased with light intensity and thus with photosynthesis, while the concentrations of organic N and nitrate decreased. Increasing N supply had the opposite effect. Therefore, TNC and organic N concentrations were negatively correlated (r=−0.90). Pool size of N or TNC increased with N and light availability when either resource was non-limiting, but increased little or remained constant when either resource was limiting. Storage reached a minimum when both resources were supplied at an equal rate.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: Forest decline ; Spruce (Picea abies) ; Nutrients ; Growth
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary A declining, closed-canopy Picea abies (L.) Karst. stand produced as much crown biomass as a healthy stand, although some trees were chlorotic due to magnesium deficiency. The production of wood per unit of leaf area in both stands was related to the foliar magnesium concentration. Although leaf area index and climate were similar at both sites, stemwood production was 35% lower in the declining than in the healthy stand. Nutritional disharmony, rather than a deficiency in a single element, was identified as the mechanism for reduced tree vigor. The role of nutrient stress in forest decline was detected by partitioning the season into three periods reflecting different phenological stages: a canopy growth period in spring, a stem growth period in summer, and a recharge period during the non-growing season. Needle growth was associated with nitrogen supply. Most of the magnesium supply required to meet the demand for foliage growth was retranslocated from mature needles. Magnesium retranslocation was related to concentration of nitrogen and magnesium in those needles before bud break. Retranslocation from mature needles during the phase of canopy production resulted in chlorosis in initially green needles if the magnesium concentration before bud break was low. Nitrogen concentration in 0-year-old needles generally remained constant with increasing supply, indicating that foliage growth was restricted by the supply of nitrogen. In contrast, magnesium concentration generally increased with supply, indicating that magnesium supply for needle growth was sufficient. Much of the magnesium required for wood production was taken up from the soil because stored magnesium was largely used for canopy growth. Uptake at the declining site was probably limited because of restricted root expansion and lower soil magnesium compared to the healthy site. For this reason only wood growth was reduced at the declining site. Because the recharge of magnesium during the non-growing period is dependent on uptake from the soil, it was more limited at the declining that at the healthy stand. However, as nitrogen uptake from the atmosphere may account for an appreciable proportion of the total uptake, and as its supply in the soil at both sites was similar, an unbalanced recharge of nitrogen and magnesium may have occurred at the declining site. If mature needles are unable to recharge with magnesium in proportion to the uptake of nitrogen, chlorosis is likely to occur during the next canopy growth period.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: Storage ; Accumulation ; Reserve formation ; Storage structure ; Biennial plants
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Four biennial species (Arctium tomentosum, Cirsium vulgare, Dipsacus sylvester and Daucus carota) which originate from habitats of different nutrient availability were investigated in a 2-year experiment in a twofactorial structured block design varying light (natural daylight versus shading) and fertilizer addition. The experiment was designed to study storage as reserve formation (competing with growth) or as accumulation (see Chapin et al. 1990). We show that (i) the previous definitions of storage excluded an important process, namely the formation of storage tissue. Depending on species, storage tissue and the filling process can be either a process of reserve formation, or a process of accumulation. (ii) In species representing low-resource habitats, the formation of a storage structure competes with other growth processes. Growth of storage tissue and filling with storage products is an accumulation process only in the high-resource plant Arctium tomentosum. We interpret the structural growth of low-resource plants in terms of the evolutionary history of these species, which have closely related woody species in the Mediterranean area. (iii) The use of storage products for early leaf growth determines the biomass development in the second season and the competitive ability of this species during growth with perennial species. (iv) The high-resource plant Arctium has higher biomass development under all conditions, i.e. plants of low-resource habitats are not superior under low-resource conditions. The main difference between high- and low-resource plants is that low-resource plants initiate flowering at a lower total plant internal pool size of available resources.
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