Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Abstract We tested the deme-formation hypothesis experimentally with four populations of leaf-galling grape phylloxera, Daktulosphaira vitifoliae, and its host, canyon grape (Vitis arizonica). An experiment designed to examine preference and performance showed that phylloxera populations did not significantly prefer their original host relative to other hosts in the percent available leaves galled. There were significant herbivore population effects (P〈0.01), host effects (P〈0.001), and population x host interaction effects (P〈0.001). Herbivore populations had different colonizing abilities (performance, as measured in the mean number of galls per leaf) on an individual host (P〈0.001), but there was no host effect. Host genotype significantly affected phylloxera performance, measured as survivorship (P〈0.01), but a phylloxera population did not necessarily have higher survivorship on its original host. Differences in fecundity, an-other measurement of performance, were due to intrinsic differences among herbivore populations (P〈0.05), and not related to host genotype. There was no correlation between distance from a phylloxera population in the field and a host's susceptibility to attack. There was a significant positive relationship between levels of infestation on a clone in the field and its susceptibility to colonization experimentally (P〈0.05), suggesting inherent differences in host resistance and susceptibility. These results did not support the deme-formation hypothesis. In a second experiment, host clone x water treatment interactions affected phylloxera survivorship (P〈0.05) and fecundity (P〈0.05). We conclude that host genotype x environment interactions may prevent sessile, parthenogenetic herbivores from locally adapting to individual host genotypes.
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