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  • 1
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2018-06-08
    Description: In this paper we review the IGS network as it currently exists and its effectiveness in supporting the IGS suite of precise products.
    Keywords: Geophysics
    Type: International GPS Service (IGS) 2002 Workshop Towards Real Time; Ottawa, Ontario; Canada
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Rocks enriched in Ge have been discovered in Gale Crater, Mars, by the Alpha-particle X-ray spectrometer (APXS) on the Mars Science Lab (MSL) rover, Curiosity. The Ge concentrations in Gale Crater (commonly 〉50 ppm) are remarkably high in comparison to Earth, where Ge ranges from 0.5-4.0 ppm in igneous rocks and 0.2-3.3 ppm in siliciclastic sediment. Primary meteoritic input is not likely the source of high Ge because Ge/Ni in chondrites (approx.0.003) and irons (〈0.04) is lower than in Gale rocks (0.08-0.2). Earth studies show Ge is a useful geochemical tracer because it is coherent with Si during magmatic processes and Ge/Si varies less than 20% in basalts. Ge and Si fractionate during soil/regolith weathering, with Ge preferentially sequestered in clays. Ge is also concentrated in Cu- and Zn-rich hydrothermal sulfide deposits and Fe- and Mnrich oxide deposits. Other fluid-mobile elements (K, Zn, Cl, Br, S) are also enriched at Gale and further constrain aqueous alteration processes. Here, we interpret the sediment alteration history and present a possible model for Ge enrichments at Gale involving fluid alteration of the protolith.
    Keywords: Geophysics
    Type: JSC-CN-32857 , Lunar and Planetary Science Conference; 16-20 Mar. 2015; The Woodlands, TX; United States
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: MSL Curiosity investigated the Windjana sandstone outcrop, in the Kimberley area of Gale Crater, and obtained mineralogical analyses with the CheMin XRD instrument. Windjana is remarkable in containing an abundance of potassium feldspar (and thus K in its bulk chemistry) combined with a low abundance of plagioclase (and low Na/K in its chemistry). The source of this enrichment in K is not clear, but has significant implications for the geology of Gale Crater and of Mars. The high K could be intrinsic to the sediment and imply that the sediment source area (Gale Crater rim) includes K-rich basalts and possibly more evolved rocks derived from alkaline magmas. Alternatively, the high K could be diagenetic and imply that the Gale Crater sediments were altered by K-rich aqueous fluids after deposition.
    Keywords: Geophysics
    Type: JSC-CN-32824 , Lunar and Planetary Science Conference; 16-20 Mar. 2015; The Woodlands, TX; United States
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-07-11
    Description: The meteorites Dho 225 and Dho 735 were recently found in Oman. Studies of their mineralogical and chemical composition suggest that these unusual meteorites are thermally metamorphosed CM2 chondrites [1,2,3]. Similar to Antarctic metamorphosed carbonaceous chondrites, the Dho 225 and Dho 735 are enriched in heavy oxygen compared to normal CMs [1,2]. However, IR studies indicating dehydration of matrix phyllosilicates are needed to confirm that the two new meteorites from Oman are thermally metamorphosed [4]. Synchrotron-based IR microspectroscopy is a new promising technique which allows the acquisition of IR spectra from extremely small samples. Here we demonstrate that this non-destructive technique is a useful tool to study hydration states of carbonaceous chondrites in situ. In addition, we acquired reflectance spectra of bulk powders of the Dho 225 and Dho 735 in the range of 0.3-50 microns.
    Keywords: Geophysics
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVI, Part 13; LPI-Contrib-1234-Pt-13
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: A significant portion of the soil of the Rocknest dune is crystalline and is consistent with derivation from unweathered basalt. Minerals and their compositions are identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) data from the CheMin instrument on MSL Curiosity. Basalt minerals in the soil include plagioclase, olivine, low- and high-calcium pyroxenes, magnetite, ilmenite, and quartz. The only minerals unlikely to have formed in an unaltered basalt are hematite and anhydrite. The mineral proportions and compositions of the Rocknest soil are nearly identical to those of the Adirondack-class basalts of Gusev Crater, Mars, inferred from their bulk composition as analyzed by the MER Spirit rover.
    Keywords: Geophysics
    Type: JSC-CN-27905 , 44th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference; 18 - 22 Mar. 2013; The Woodlands, TX; United States
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The investigation of Home Plate and its surroundings in the Inner Basin of the Columbia Hills in Gusev Crater has added substantially to the water story on Mars. Textural, morphological, and geochemical evidence from Home Plate point towards an explosive origin, probably a hydrovolcanic explosion [1]. High silica deposits in the immediate vicinity of Home Plate suggest hydrothermal alteration [e.g. 2,3]. Pervasively altered deposits rich in hematite were investigated to the southeast of Home Plate. Of these, the target Halley, the target KingGeorgeIsland on the GrahamLand outcrop, and the targets Montalva and Riquelme on the Troll outcrop were investigated in situ with the Alpha Particle X-ray spectrometer (APXS), the Microscopic Imager (MI), and the Moessbauer (MB) spectrometer (Fig. 1).
    Keywords: Geophysics
    Type: 39th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference; 10-14 Mar. 2008; League City, TX; United States
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The Mars Exploration Rover Spirit landed in Gusev crater on Jan. 4, 2004. Spirit has traversed the Gusev crater plains, ascended to the top of Husband Hill, and entered into the Inner Basin of the Columbia Hills. The Athena science payload onboard Spirit has recorded numerous measurements on the chemistry and mineralogy of materials encountered during nearly 2 Mars years of operation within the crater. Rocks and soils have been grouped into classes based upon their unique differences in mineralogy and chemistry [1-3]. Some of the most significant chemical discoveries include the composition of Adirondack class flood basalts [4-6]; high sulfur in Clovis and Peace Class rocks [7,2]; high P and Ti in Wishstone Class rocks [7,2]; composition of alkalic basalts [2,6]; very high S in Paso Robles class soils [7,2], and the possible occurrence of a smectite-like chemical composition in Independence class rocks [8]. Water has played a significant role in the alteration of rocks and soils in the Columbia Hills. The occurrence of goethite and ferric sulfate alone suggests that liquid water was involved in their formation [3]. The pervasively altered materials in Husband Hill outcrops and rocks may have formed by the aqueous alteration of basaltic rocks, volcaniclastic materials, and/or impact ejecta by solutions that were rich in acid-volatile elements [2]. The objective of this paper is to provide an update on the health of the Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) and to expand the geochemical dataset from sol 470 to sol 1368. Specific objectives are to (1) update the rock and soil classifications, (2) characterize elemental relationships among the major rock and soil classes, and (3) evaluate the involvement of water in the formation or alteration of the materials in these classes.
    Keywords: Geophysics
    Type: 39th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference; 10-14 Mar. 2008; League City, TX; United States
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The Curiosity Rover landed in a lithologically and geochemically diverse region of Mars. We present a recommended rock classification framework based on terrestrial schemes, and adapted for the imaging and analytical capabilities of MSL as well as for rock types distinctive to Mars (e.g., high Fe sediments). After interpreting rock origin from textures, i.e., sedimentary (clastic, bedded), igneous (porphyritic, glassy), or unknown, the overall classification procedure (Fig 1) involves: (1) the characterization of rock type according to grain size and texture; (2) the assignment of geochemical modifiers according to Figs 3 and 4; and if applicable, in depth study of (3) mineralogy and (4) geologic/stratigraphic context. Sedimentary rock types are assigned by measuring grains in the best available resolution image (Table 1) and classifying according to the coarsest resolvable grains as conglomerate/breccia, (coarse, medium, or fine) sandstone, silt-stone, or mudstone. If grains are not resolvable in MAHLI images, grains in the rock are assumed to be silt sized or smaller than surface dust particles. Rocks with low color contrast contrast between grains (e.g., Dismal Lakes, sol 304) are classified according to minimum size of apparent grains from surface roughness or shadows outlining apparent grains. Igneous rocks are described as intrusive or extrusive depending on crystal size and fabric. Igneous textures may be described as granular, porphyritic, phaneritic, aphyric, or glassy depending on crystal size. Further descriptors may include terms such as vesicular or cumulate textures.
    Keywords: Geophysics
    Type: JSC-CN-32866 , Lunar and Planetary Science Conference; 16-20 Mar. 2015; The Woodlands, TX; United States
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The eolian bedform within Gale Crater referred to as "Rocknest" was investigated by the science instruments of the Curiosity Mars rover. Physical, chemical and mineralogical results are consistent with data collected from soils at other landing sites, suggesting a globally-similar composition. Results from the Curiosity payload from Rocknest should be considered relevant beyond a single, localized region with Gale Crater, providing key insights into planetary scale processes.
    Keywords: Geophysics
    Type: JSC-CN-27936 , Lunar and Planetary Science Conference; 18-22 Mar. 2013; The Woodlands, TX; United States
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