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  • 1
    ISSN: 0192-253X
    Keywords: Heat shock protein ; maize ; mi-crosporogenesis ; gametogenesis ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The small (18-kDa) heat shock proteins (hsps) of maize are encoded by a complex multigene family. In a previous report, we described the genetic information from cDNAs encoding two different members of the family. In this communication, we report the isolation and characterization of cDNA and genomic clones encoding information for a third member of this hsp family (c/gMHSP18-1). DNA fragments containing nucleotide sequences common to, or specific for, each of these characterized 18-kDa genes were prepared and used as probes to assess the expression of these genes during microsporogenesis and development of the gametophyte in an inbred line of maize (Oh43). Our results demonstrate (1) that mRNA transcripts encoding the 18-kDa hsps are expressed and/or accumulate during microsporogenesis, and (2) that genes encoding two of the characterized 18-kDa hsps are expressed and/or accumulate independently, in a stage-specific manner during microsporogenesis. These observations imply that the stage-specific expression of particular 18-kDa hsp genes results from gene-specific regulation during microsporogenesis and gametophyte development rather than from an overall activation of the heat shock or stress response. © 1993Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0192-253X
    Keywords: Thyroid hormone ; carbamyl phosphate synthetase ; Rana catesbeiana ; metamorphosis ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: During both spontaneous and thyroid hormone (TH)-induced metamorphosis, the Rana catesbeiana tadpole undergoes postembryonic developmental changes in its liver which are necessary for its transition from an ammonotelic larva to a ureotelic adult. Although this transition ultimately results from marked increases in the activities and/or de novo synthesis of the urea cycle enzymes, the precise molecular means by which TH exerts this tissue-specific response are presently unknown. Recent reports, using RNA from whole Xenopus laevis tadpole homogenates and indirect means of measuring TH receptor (TR) mRNAs, suggest a correlation between the up-regulation of TRβ-mRNAs and the general morphological changes occurring during amphibian metamorphosis. To assess whether or not this same relationship exists in a TH-responsive tissue, such as liver, we isolated and characterized a cDNA clone containing the complete nucleotide sequence for a R. catesbeiana urea cycle enzyme, ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC), as well as a genomic clone containing a portion of the hormone-binding domain of a R. catesbeiana TRβ gene. Through use of these homologous sequences and a heterologous cDNA fragment encoding rat carbamyl phosphate synthetase (CPS), we directly determined the relative levels of the TRβ, OTC, and CPS mRNAs in liver from spontaneous and TH-induced tadpoles. Our results establish that TH affects an up-regulation of mRNAs for its own receptor prior to up-regulating CPS and OTC mRNAs. Moreover, results with cultured tadpole liver demonstrate that TH, in the absence of any other hormonal influence, can affect an up-regulation of both the TRβ and OTC mRNAs. © 1992 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Developmental Genetics 15 (1994), S. 313-319 
    ISSN: 0192-253X
    Keywords: Metamorphosis ; postembryonic development ; thyroid hormones ; ecdysteroids ; amphibians ; insects ; fish ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0192-253X
    Keywords: C/EBP ; thyroid hormone ; metamorphosis ; gene expression ; Rana cafesbeiana ; bZlP proteins ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Tissue-specific changes in gene expression occur in the liver of Rana cafesbeiana tadpoles undergoing metamorphosis. Many of these changes can be induced precociously by administration of thyroid hormone (TH) to a tadpole or to cultured tadpole liver. While the precise molecular means by which TH exerts a tissue-specific response is unknown, recent studies suggest that the expression of genes which are liver-specific and characteristic of the adult liver phenotype may rely on TH-induction of tissue-specific transcription factors, as well as the thyroid hormone receptor proteins. Guided by this notion, we screened our Rana catesbeiana liver cDNA library and isolated clones, RcC/EBP-1 and -2, encoding Rana homologues of a mammalian transcription factor, C/EBP (CCAAT/enhancer core binding protein), implicated in the expression of liver-specific genes and terminal differentiation of hepatocytes. Gel mobility shift assays demonstrate that the proteins synthesized from these cDNAs bind specifically to the consensus binding site for C/EBP-related proteins. Characterization of the amino acid sequence in the bZlP DNA-binding domains of these proteins suggests that RcC/EBP-1 and -2 encode Rana homologues of C/EBPα and δ, respectively. Hybridization analyses demonstrate that the amount of RcC/EBP-2 mRNAs in tadpole liver remains constant throughout metamorphosis, whereas RcC/EBP-1 mRNAs are up-regulated during both spontaneous and TH-induced metamorphosis. The TH-induced up-regulation of RcC/ EBP-1 mRNAs precedes the up-regulation of liver-specific urea cycle enzyme mRNAs by 6 to 12 hours. These results, coupled with in situ hybridization studies, suggest that RcC/EBP-1 mRNAs encode a transcription factor which may play an early role(s) in the terminal differentiation and/or reprogramming of gene expression in this tadpole's liver cells during both spontaneous and TH-induced metamorphosis. ©1994 WiIey-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
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