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  • 1
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Co-conformation ; Molecular recognition ; Planar chirality ; Rotaxanes ; Template-directed synthesis ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: -The template-directed syntheses of three [2]rotaxanes possessing either chiral centers or elements of planar chirality, in one of their two mechanically interlocked components, have been realized and their solid-state structures have been analyzed by X-ray crystallography. In one instance, an enantiomerically pure dumbbell-shaped component incorporating a 1,5-dioxynaphthalene recognition site and two (1R,2S,5R)-menthyl stoppers was employed to template the formation of the achiral tetracationic cyclophane, cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene). The resulting enantiomerically pure [2]rotaxane was isolated in a yield of 55%. In the other two instances, an achiral 1,5-dioxynaphthalene-based dumbbell-shaped component was employed to template the formation of bipyridinium-based cyclophanes possessing either one or two elements of planar chirality. The resulting [2]rotaxane, possessing one element of planar chirality, was isolated as a racemate in a yield of 24%. The related [2]rotaxane, possessing two elements of planar chirality, was isolated as a mixture of a meso form and an enantiomeric pair in an overall yield of 28%. The 1H-NMR-spectroscopic analysis of this mixture revealed a diastereoisomeric ratio of 4:1. A degenerate co-conformational change was identified by variable-temperature 1H-NMR spectroscopy in all [2]rotaxanes. The symmetry loss arising from the introduction of one or two elements of planar chirality enabled the elucidation of the mechanism of this dynamic process in two instances.
    Additional Material: 12 Ill.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Catenanes ; Mechanically interlocked molecules ; Molecular recognition ; Rotaxanes ; Template-directed synthesis ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: -A [2]catenane, able to bind π-electron-rich guests inside the cavity of one of its two macrocyclic components has been designed and synthesized using supramolecular assistance. This recognition motif has been exploited to template the formation of a so-called rotacatenane - i.e., a molecule composed of a dumbbell-shaped component threaded through the cavity of one of the two mechanically interlocked macrocyclic components of a [2]catenane. The structure of this [2]catenane, as well as that of a model [2]catenane, have been characterized unequivocally by single-crystal X-ray analyses. Furthermore, some of the co-conformational changes associated with these mechanically interlocked molecules in solution have been probed by variable-temperature 1H-NMR spectroscopy.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Fluorine ; Cycloadditions ; Nitrones ; Asymmetric induction ; Sulfoxides ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: 3-(Fluoroalkyl)isoxazolidines 6 and -2,3-dihydroisoxazoles 8 have been obtained in enantiomerically pure form with good diastereoselectivity by 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of diethyl fumarate and dimethylacetylene dicarboxylate, respectively, to the chiral fluorinated nitrone (R)-5. The latter has been prepared from the β-fluoromethyl-β-oxo sulfoxide (RS)-1, by a synthetic sequence where the chiral and enantiomerically pure sulfinyl function acts as a removable source of chirality. Reductive opening of isoxazolidines 6 then afforded amino fluoromethyl diols 7 in good yields.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Fluorine ; Lactones ; Annulation ; Ketene ; Sulfoxides ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: -Enantiomerically pure α,α-dichloro β-fluoroalkyl γ-p-tolylthio γ-butyrolactones trans-6a-c have been obtained with excellent stereocontrol (〉 98:2) and enantiomeric purity (〉 98:2) by sulfoxide-directed lactonization (Marino's annu-lation reaction) of β-fluoroalkyl vinyl sulfoxides (R)-(E)-5a-c with dichloroketene. Highly chemoselective dechlorination and desulfurization reactions performed on trans-6c efficiently provided the β-chlorodifluoromethyl γ-butyrolactone (S)-8c, the absolute stereochemistry of which was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis of its γ-p-tolylthio precursor (2R,3S)-7c.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Fluorine ; Pheromones ; Sulfoxides ; Sulcatol ; Asymmetric synthesis ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: -The pheromone (R)-(-)-sulcatol (10a) and three of its enantiomeric mono-, di-, and trifluoro analogues 10b-d have been synthesized, in six steps and with good overall yields, starting from chiral (R)-2-methyl-5-[(4-methylphenyl)sulfinyl]pent-2-ene (1) and commercially available fluorinated or non-fluorinated acetates.Supporting information for this article is available on the WWW under http://www.wileY-Vch.de/contents/jc_2046/1999/98375_s.pdf or from the author.
    Additional Material: 2 Tab.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: β-Iminosulfoxides ; Quaternary stereocentre ; Pictet-Spengler reaction ; Alkaloids ; Fluorine ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Enantiomerically pure 1-trifluoromethyl-tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloid analogues, in which C-1 is a quaternary stereogenic centre, have been synthesized by stereoselective intramolecular Pictet-Spengler reaction of the N-arylethyl γ-trifluoro-β-iminosulfoxide (R)-3, and subsequent elaborations of the sulfinyl auxiliary. The absolute stereochemistry of the stereogenic centre was determined by X-ray diffraction on the α-phenylpropionic ester (1R,2′S)-10.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Fluorinated dideoxynucleosides ; Through-space interactions ; Hydrogen bonds ; Long-range coupling constants ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: -A collection of 5′-O-benzyl-2′,3′-dideoxy-4′-(fluoromethyl)nucleosides carrying both purinic and pyrimidinic nucleobases (uracil, 5-Br-uracil, 5-O2N-uracil, 6-Cl-purine and inosine) were synthesized in both the α and the β form. Through-space-transmitted 6JCF NMR coupling constants between F and C-6 (pyrimidinic base) or C-8 (purinic base) were observed for all of the α anomers of the compounds examined, whilst the corresponding 7JHF coupling constants were resolved only for the 5-substituted uracil derivatives. The absolute values of all the through-space couplings were found to decrease monotonically with increasing solvent polarity (CDCl3, MeOD, [D6]acetone, [D6]DMSO). This trend suggests that the through-space interaction is mediated by an intramolecular (sp3)C-F…H-C(sp2) hydrogen bond. The possibility of any relevant solvent-induced conformational change influencing the F/base mutual spatial relationship in the molecules investigated was ruled out by heteronuclear steady-state 1H{19F}-NOE experiments. A linear correlation was observed between 6JCF and 7JHF coupling constants and the Kamlet-Taft's hydrogen bond basicity parameter β. The crystal structures of the α and β anomers of the 5-nitrouracil nucleoside show evidence that the H-6 of the nucleobase forms hydrogen-bond-like interactions involving the O-benzyl oxygen atom in the β anomer, and that in the case of the α anomer this is replaced by the F atom of the fluoromethyl group.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Molecular recognition ; Rotaxanes ; Self-assembly ; Template-directed synthesis ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Three dumbbell-shaped compounds incorporating terminal triisopropylsilyl stoppers, connected to a central 1,5-dioxynaphthalene recognition site by [-CH2CH2O-]n spacers (n = 1-3), have been synthesized. These compounds have been employed as templates for the synthesis of [2]rotaxanes incorporating cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) as the ring component. It was found that the length of the polyether chains of the templates influences the efficiencies of the template-directed syntheses. Rotaxane formation occurs only if n 〉 1 and, when n = 3 the corresponding [2]rotaxane can be isolated in a yield as high as 72 %. This remarkable yield is the highest ever obtained for the template-directed syntheses of [2]rotaxanes incorporating donor/acceptor interactions.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Fluorine ; Sulfoxides ; Nucleotide analogues ; Asymmetric synthesis ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: D- and L-(diethoxyphosphoryl)difluoromethyl nucleoside analogues 10 have been synthesized using the building block approach, starting from chiral fluorinated molecules. The key steps of the synthetic sequence were condensation of 2-methyl-5-(4-methylphenylsulfinyl)pent-2-ene (1) and ethyl 2-(diethoxyphosphoryl)-2,2-difluoroacetate (2), reduction of the thus formed ketones 3 to alcohols 4, reductive removal of the sulfur moiety to give hydroxy phosphonates 6, and oxidative cyclization to give furanose derivatives 8.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Natural products ; Epoxidations ; Asymmetric synthesis ; Fluorine ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---The synthesis of enantiomerically and diastereomerically pure (-)-(1R,2R,5R)- and (-)-(1R,2S,5R)-2-fluoro frontalin (7) starting from (+)-(1S)-menthyl-(R)-toluene-4-sulfinate, methylmagnesium bromide, methyl fluoroacetate, 4-pentenyl bromide and diazomethane is described. The absolute stereochemistry was unambiguously determined by X-ray analysis of (+)-(1S,2R,5S,RS)-5, an intermediate in the synthesis of the enantiomeric (+)-(1S,2R,5S)-2-fluoro frontalin (7).
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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