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  • 1
    ISSN: 1075-2617
    Keywords: Conformational analysis ; peptide-based taste ligands ; artificial sweeteners ; X-ray crystal structures ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The molecular basis of sweet taste was investigated by carrying out the crystal state conformational analysis by X-ray diffraction of the following dipeptide taste igands:N-3,3-dimethylbutyl-aspartyl-phenylalanine methyl ester,I(N-DMB-Asp-Phe-OMe), its sodium salt (N-DMB-Asp-Phe-ONa),II, aspartyl-D-2-aminobutyric acid-(S)-α-ethylbenzylamide,III(Asp-D-Abu-(S)-α-ethylbenzylamide), aspartyl-N′-((2,2,5,5-tetramethylcyclopentanyl)-carbonyl)-(R)-1,1-diamino-ethane,IV(Asp-(R)-gAla-TMCP), and aspartyl-D-valine-(R)-α-methoxymethylbenzyl amide,V(Asp-D-Val-(R)-α-methoxymethylbenzylamide). With the exception of the sodium saltII, all compounds are sweet-tasting, showing in some cases considerable potency enhancement with respect to sucrose. The results of this study confirm the earlier model that an ‘L-shape’ molecular array is essential for eliciting sweet taste for dipeptide-like ligands. In addition, it was established that (i) substitution of the N-terminal group does not inhibit sweet taste, if its zwitterionic character is maintained; (ii) a hydrophobic group located between the stem and the base of the L-shape could be responsible for sweetness potency enhancement, as found inI, IIIandIV; in fact, the extraordinary potency of the N-alkylated analogueIwould support a model with an additional hydrophobic binding domain above the base of the ‘L’; (iii) removal of the methyl ester at the C-terminus of compoundIwith the salt formation gives rise to the tasteless compoundII; (iv) for the first time all possible side-chain conformers (g-,g+andt) for the N-substituted aspartyl residue were observed; and (v) a retro-inverso modification, incorporated at position 2 of the dipeptide chain, confers greater flexibility to the molecule, as demonstrated by the contemporary presence of six conformationally distinct independent molecules in the unit cell and yet sweet taste properties are maintained, as found inIV. © 1998 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Cyclodextrins ; Inclusion compounds ; Carcinine ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---A new modified β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) derivative 1 that was functionalized in position 6 with Boc-Carcinine was synthesised and its crystal structure was determined. The structure reveals a “sleeping swan”-like shape, the covalently bonded Boc-Carcinine moiety forming a folded structure with the Boc group inserted within the hydrophobic cavity of the β-cyclodextrin. The conformation of the Carcinine moiety is determined by the inclusion of the Boc group and is further stabilised by three intramolecular hydrogen bonds, two between the amide N1-H group, the carbonyl C′1=O1 group and a primary hydroxylic group of the glucose unit 5, one between the carbonyl C′0=O0 group and the primary hydroxylic group of the glucose unit 2. The β-CD macrocycle differs only slightly from unmodified β-CDs, maintaining an approximate sevenfold symmetry. The solution structure of the new β-CD derivative was investigated by NMR spectroscopy and circular dichroism (c.d.) spectroscopy. In addition to a complete (1H and 13C) assignment of the pendant Boc-Carcinine group, the NMR study allowed the assignment of all the proton resonances associated with the β-CD macrocycle. Furthermore, NMR and c.d. results indicated that the self-inclusion of the Boc group within the β-CD cavity is retained in aqueous solution. In order to estimate the strength of this self-inclusion complex a series of competition experiments with the external guest 1-adamantanol was carried out using c.d. spectroscopy.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1075-2617
    Keywords: conformational analysis ; NMR spectroscopy ; X-ray diffraction ; peptide-based taste ligands ; artificial sweeteners ; computer simulations ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A dipeptide taste ligand L-aspartyl-D-2-aminobutyric acid-(S)-α-ethylbenzylamide was found to be about 2000 times more potent than sucrose. To investigate the molecular basis of its potent sweet taste, we carried out conformational analysis of this molecule and several related analogues by NMR spectroscopy, computer simulations and X-ray crystallographic studies. The results of the studies support our earlier model that an ‘L’-shape molecular array is essential for eliciting sweet taste. In addition, we have identified an aromatic group located between the stem and the base of the ‘L-shape’, which is responsible for enhancement of sweetness potency. In this study, we also assessed the optimal size of the essential hydrophobic group (X) and the effects of the chirality of the second residue toward taste. ©1997 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Additional Material: 11 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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