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  • ddc:330  (100)
  • General Chemistry  (13)
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  • 1
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    Bonn: Institute of Labor Economics (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2018-07-17
    Description: We present quasi-experimental evidence on the employment effects of an unprecedented large increase in the early retirement age (ERA). Raising the ERA has the potential to extend contribution periods and to reduce the number of pension beneficiaries at the same time, if employment exits are successfully delayed. However, workers may not be able to work longer or may choose other social support programs as exit routes from employment. We study the effects of the ERA increase on employment and potential program substitution in a regression-discontinuity framework. Germany abolished an important early retirement program for women born after 1951, effectively raising the ERA for women by three years. We analyze the effects of this huge increase on employment, unemployment, disability pensions, and inactivity rates. Our results suggest that the reform increased both employment and unemployment rates of women age 60 and over. However, we do not find evidence for active program substitution from employment into alternative social support programs. Instead employed women remained employed and unemployed women remained unemployed. The results suggest an increase in inequality within the affected cohorts.
    Keywords: J14 ; J18 ; J22 ; J26 ; ddc:330 ; retirement age ; early retirement ; regression discontinuity ; pension reform ; unemployment ; labor supply ; disability pension
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-06-26
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-07-18
    Description: We evaluate the labor market and distributional effects of an increase in the early retirement age (ERA) from 60 to 63 for women. We use a regression discontinuity design which exploits the immediate increase in the ERA between women born in 1951 and 1952. The analysis is based on the German micro census which includes about 370,000 households per year. We focus on heterogeneous labor market effects on the individual and on the household level and we study the distributional implications using net household income. In this respect we extend the previous literature which mainly studied employment effects on the individual level. Our results show sizable labor market effects which strongly differ by subgroups. We document larger employment effects for women who cannot rely on other income on the household level, e.g. women with a low income partner. The distributional analysis shows on average no significant effects on female or household income. This result holds as well for heterogeneous groups: Even for the most vulnerable groups, such as single women, women without higher education, or low partner income, we do not find significant reductions in income. One reason for this result is program substitution.
    Keywords: J14 ; J18 ; J22 ; J26 ; H31 ; ddc:330 ; retirement age ; pension reform ; labor supply ; early retirement ; distributional effects ; spillover effects ; household
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-11-27
    Description: We evaluate the labor market and distributional effects of an increase in the early retirement age (ERA) from 60 to 63 for women. We use a regression discontinuity design which exploits the immediate increase in the ERA between women born in 1951 and 1952. The analysis is based on the German micro census which includes about 370,000 households per year. We focus on heterogeneous labor market effects on the individual and on the household level and we study the distributional implications using net household income. In this respect we extend the previous literature which mainly studied employment effects on the individual level. Our results show sizable labor market effects which strongly differ by subgroups. We document larger employment effects for women who cannot rely on other income on the household level, e.g. women with a low income partner. The distributional analysis shows on average no significant effects on female or household income. This result holds as well for heterogeneous groups: Even for the most vulnerable groups, such as single women, women without higher education, or low partner income, we do not find significant reductions in income. One reason for this result is program substitution.
    Keywords: J14 ; J18 ; J22 ; J26 ; H31 ; ddc:330 ; retirement age ; pension reform ; labor supply ; early retirement ; distributional effects ; spillover effects ; household
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-12-06
    Description: The unemployment rate in East Germany has been almost twice as high as in West Germany since unification. At the same time, employment subject to social security contributions decreased markedly. We analyse how these developments are reflected in the careers of birth cohorts born between 1937 and 1971. German reunification affected these cohorts differently as they were between 53 and 29 years of age when the wall came down and thus in different stages of their careers. To account for this, we estimate cohort effects in employment careers for men and women differentiated by skill group on the basis of the Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP). Our projection of future careers, based on the estimated cohort effects, shows a massive decline in cumulated full-time employment over the life-cycle and a dramatic increase of unemployment for younger birth cohorts. Given that the estimation of cohort effects and the projection of future careers are based on a negative labour market development in East Germany since unification, we also analyse an alternative scenario characterized by an improvement of future employment careers of younger birth cohorts.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Arbeitslosigkeit ; sozialversicherungspflichtige Arbeitnehmer ; Sozioökonomisches Panel ; Berufsverlauf - Prognose ; Bildungsniveau ; Beschäftigungsform ; Qualifikationsniveau ; Arbeitsmarktentwicklung ; erwerbstätige Frauen ; erwerbstätige Männer ; Ostdeutschland ; Bundesrepublik Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-03-29
    Description: We analyze the impact of changing employment patterns and pension reforms on the future level of public pensions across birth cohorts in Germany. The analysis is based on a microsimulation model which accounts for cohort effects in individual employment and unemployment and earnings over the lifecycle as well as the differential impact of recent pension reforms on birth cohorts. Cohort effects estimated on the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) for for individuals born between 1937 and 1971 vary greatly by region, gender and education and strongly affect lifecycle wage profiles, in particular in East Germany and for people with little education. Using simulated life cycle employment and income profiles, we project gross future pensions across cohorts taking into account changing demographics and recent pension reforms. Simulations show that pension levels for East German men and women will fall dramatically among younger birth cohorts, not only because of policy reforms but due to higher cumulated unemployment. For West German men, the small reduction of average pension levels among younger birth cohorts is mainly driven by the impact of pension reforms, while future pension levels of West German women are increasing or stable due to rising labor market participation of younger birth cohorts.
    Keywords: H55 ; J26 ; J11 ; ddc:330 ; Public pensions ; cohort effects ; microsimulation
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:conferenceObject
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  • 7
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    Münster: Inst. für Ökonomische Bildung
    Publication Date: 2013-05-22
    Description: The paper theoretically analyses the effect of the introduction of the three-point-rule on the strategies in a soccer match. Therefore the expectation values for the goal difference at the end of the game under different strategies both for matches between equally strong teams and (more realistically) for matches between teams with varying quality levels are simulated. It can be shown that the rule change in tied games between equally strong teams leads to a more offensive manner of play, while in matches between teams with varying quality levels the weaker team plays in any case more offensive, while the stronger team only plays more offensive if the gap between the quality of the teams is not too big. If one team leads in matches with homogenous teams the leading team now changes later from an offensive manner of play to a defensive manner. In matches with heterogeneous teams with the better team in lead this team changes its manner of play earlier from offense to defence and if the weaker team leads it changes its strategy earlier.
    Keywords: C72 ; L83 ; ddc:330 ; Fußballsport ; Strategie ; Betriebswirtschaftliches Ziel ; Spieltheorie ; Theorie ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2013-05-22
    Description: The effects of the three-point rule in first league German soccer are tested empirically and compared to games from the German cup-competition. The inclusion of cup games ensures that changes in league games can be attributed to the three-point rule. As a result of their relative devaluation, the number of draws should decrease. Furthermore, an increase in the number of close wins is expected. The strategy of a leading team becomes more defensive, resulting in fewer goal shootings by that team, as well as fewer shooting opportunities for the opponent. Empirical evidence supporting these effects is found.
    Keywords: C72 ; C93 ; L83 ; ddc:330 ; Fußballsport ; Nichtkooperatives Spiel ; Regulierung ; Bewertung ; Theorie ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 9
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    Münster: Inst. für Ökonomische Bildung
    Publication Date: 2013-05-22
    Description: Die Auswechslung von Spielern stellt neben der Halbzeitpause die einzige Möglichkeit für einen Fußballtrainer dar, während des Spiels Einfluss auf Strategie und Taktik seines Teams zu nehmen. Da die Anzahl der möglichen Wechsel beschränkt ist, kommt diesen Auswechslungen eine große Bedeutung zu. Der Beitrag stellt daher Gründe für die Auswechslung von Spielern im Fußball dar und zeigt anhand von Daten der 1. Fußball-Bundesliga, dass unter anderem der aktuelle Spielstand Auswirkungen auf Zeitpunkt und Art der Auswechslung hat. Zusätzlich zeigen die Daten, dass häufiger Spieler ausgewechselt werden, die bereits eine gelbe Karte erhalten haben und damit gelb-rot gefährdet sind, als solche Spieler, die noch nicht verwarnt wurden.
    Description: Besides half time talk player substitutions are the only possibility for a coach to exert influence on strategy and tactic of his team. Since the number of possible player substitutions is limited these substitutions are of utmost importance. This article therefore displays reasons for player substitutions and shows by means of data from the first German soccer league that amongst others the current score has an effect on time and kind of the substitutions. In addition the data demonstrate that players which were booked are replaced more often than players that were not booked
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Fußballsport ; Personaleinsatzplanung ; Professioneller Sport ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 10
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    Heidelberg: Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-09-10
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
    Type: doc-type:article
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