Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Summary Four species of gall-forming sawflies were each frequently found to have clumped distributions among shoots within their willow host plant across four sites and three years. When all species were considered together by clone, year, and site, species showed independence of distribution among shoots two thirds of the time and showed positive covariance one third of the time. When pairs of species were considered separately, but clones were combined within sites and years, 60% of the chi-square tests of association were significant. All but one of the significant tests showed positive associations between pairs of species. The stem galler was positively associated with the leaf folder at all sites in all years, and the petiole galler was positively associated with the stem galler and leaf folder for most year by site combinations. When species paris co-occurred on shoots they were usually found at the same or higher density as when found alone on shoots. Only 2 of 100 tests showed a depressed density of a species when co-occurring on shoots with heterospecifics. All sawfly species were found on shoots that were significantly larger (mean node number) than on shoots without sawflies, and species responded to shoot size variation similarly. Sizes of shoots occupied by heterospecific species combinations were usually significantly larger than shoots with only conspecifics, for all species. These data supported the hypothesis that similar species' responses to within-plant variation would lead to positive rather than negative or random species associations. The data do not support the hypothesis that interspecific competition was important in determining shoot choice or species density.
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