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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Thermal ion energy distribution functions and local electric and magnetic fields were directly measured for the first time in the ionospheric E region. Measured ion distribution functions were fitted to shifted Maxwellian distributions, and their resulting ion drift velocities were compared with E x B/B-squared velocities from the double-probe electric field observations. The results show that the ion drift direction rotates with respect to the local electric field direction and that the ratio of the magnitudes of the ion velocity to the E x B/B-squared velocity decreases with decreasing altitudes. Using these observations, the quiet time ion-neutral collison frequencies and neutral wind velocities were estimated and found to be consistent with theoretical estimates. However, significant discrepancies between observations and theory are found in the disturbed E region near auroral particle precipitation regions. These data indicate that the auroral atmosphere is significantly perturbed due to Joule as well as particle heating effects.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 96; 9761-977
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Several ion whistlers were observed by the polar orbiting satellites, Isis, during geomagnetic storms associated with large solar flares in 1982. It seems that the proton density ratio to the total ions deduced from the crossover frequency of the transequatorial ion whistlers observed at geomagnetic low latitudes during the main phase of the geomagnetic storm on July 14, 1982 was lower than the usual density ratio. An anomalous pattern seen on the time-compressed dynamic spectra of the ion whistlers on September 6, 1982 may suggest the existence of effects by the component He(3+) in a quite small amount.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Radio Research Laboratory, Journal (ISSN 0033-8001); 33; 181-202
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2011-08-17
    Description: The high latitude limit of transequatorial deuteron whistlers is found to occur at latitudes where B(m) = B/2, in which B is the local magnetic field at the satellite and B(m) is the minimum magnetic field on the field line through the satellite. The high latitude limit of transequatorial proton whistlers, often extends to the latitude where B(m) = B/4 in the autumn and winter. Transequatorial deuteron whistlers have a constant time interval for an echo train. The damping rate of the cyclotron resonant interaction with rare deuteron is large enough to generate deuteron whistlers. Ray tracing results for nonducted propagation of transequatorial deuteron whistlers show that rays are guided by the geomagnetic field within one degree in invariant latitude for several bounces between the two hemispheres.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics; 42; May 1980
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-08-16
    Description: The paper investigates two unusual types of ion cyclotron whistlers that were found in the low-latitude topside ionosphere by analyzing ISIS VLF electric-field data received at Kashima, Japan. One type is characterized by an asymptotic frequency equal to one half the local proton gyrofrequency; the asymptotic frequency of the other type corresponds to the minimum proton gyrofrequency along the geomagnetic field line passing through the satellite. The observations are compared with theoretical spectrograms of the ion cyclotron whistlers computed for appropriate model distributions of electrons and ions in the topside ionosphere. It is found that the whistlers with the asymptotic frequency of one half the local proton gyrofrequency are deuteron whistlers and that the other whistlers are due to the transequatorial propagation of proton or deuteron whistlers originating in the southern hemisphere.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Planetary and Space Science; 24; Apr. 197
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