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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Results are reported from airborne measurements of NO, NO2, O3, and CO obtained in the free troposphere (FT) and boundary layer (BL) over the western U.S. and eastern Pacific during the NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation 2 (CITE 2) in summer 1986. The aircraft instrumentation and the CITE 2 flight protocols are described, and the results are presented in extensive tables and graphs. Over the ocean the median mixing ratios for NO and NO2 were found to be 4.0 and 10.4 parts per trillion by volume (pptv), respectively, in the BL and 12.4 and 18.0 pptv in the FT; the corresponding values over land were 34.5 and 75.0 pptv in the BL and 13.0 and 36.0 pptv in the FT. in continental air masses. NO(x) is shown to be positively correlated with O3 and CO and negatively correlated with dewpoint over the ocean, whereas over land NO(x) was positively correlated with O3, CO, and dewpoint.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 95; 10205-10
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Results are reported from airborne PAN measurements obtained at altitudes 0-6 km over the continental U.S. and the eastern Pacific during the NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation 2 (CITE 2) in summer 1986. The CITE 2 flights and instrumentation are described, and the results are presented in extensive graphs and characterized in detail. It is shown that PAN is an important reactive N-containing species in the troposphere. Although the PAN mixing ratios were highly variable, in general high mixing ratios of 100-300 parts per trillion by volume (pptv) were found at 4-6 km, and very low ratios (5-20 pptv) were detected in the marine boundary layer. Good correlation was seen between the CITE 2 PAN values and those for O3, NO(y), NO(x), HNO3, C2H6, CO, and CFCl3.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 95; 10163-10
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: The role of chlorine atoms in the oxidation of methane and nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) in the marine troposphere and lower stratosphere was investigated using a one-dimensional photochemical model that incorporated the chemistry of CH4, NMHCs, NO(x), O(x), and HO(x), as well as organic and inorganic halogens in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. The model predicted that chlorine atoms are present in the marine troposphere at the concentrations of about 1000/cu cm, mostly as a product of the reaction between OH and HCl released from sea spray. The results indicate that Cl atoms cause 20 to 40 percent of NMHC oxidation in the troposphere and 40 to 90 percent in the lower stratosphere. At 15 km, the NMHC-Cl reactions account for nearly 80 percent of the PAN produced. Where available, experimental data confirmed the model predictions.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry (ISSN 0167-7764); 7; 261-285
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 95; 10179-10
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: The chemistry of ethane and propane is studied using a global two-dimensional 'zonally averaged' height- and latitude-dependent tropospheric model. The purpose of the study is to derive theoretical estimates of the seasonal and latitudinal distributions of a variety of intermediate organic compounds formed by the photochemical oxidation of C2H6 and C3H8. It is shown that C2H6 and C3H8 emitted at rates of 16 Tg C2H6/a and 23 Tg C3H8/a do not affect the overall photochemistry of the troposphere significantly. Major global effects on O3 and OH concentrations are suggested to be coming from the formation of peroxyacetyl nitrate by the interactions of NOx with other hydrocarbons with strong and spatially correlated anthropogenic or natural sources at the earth's surface. It is pointed out that attention should be given to organic nitrates produced by the oxidation of NMHC other than C2H6 and C3H8.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 96; 15
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: An analysis is presented on the distribution and variability of PAN as well as its relationship with measured chemical and meteorological parameters. The chemicals of most interest for which measurements were available are PAN, NO(x), O3, CO, and C2Cl4. PAN was measured by the electron capture gas chromatographic technique, and the technique for calibrations and measurements are detailed. Data show that significant concentrations of PAN (5-125 ppt) are present during the wet season and this PAN is 1-5 times more abundant than NO(x). PAN levels at different atmospheric locations are discussed, and it is noted that PAN shows evidence of a possible latitudinal gradient in the free troposphere, with values falling rapidly from the northern midlatitudes toward the equator. High correlations between O3 and PAN levels suggest that nonmethane hydrocarbons may contribute significantly to high O3 in the free troposphere. Evidence indicates that virtually all of the NO(x) above 4 km could result from PAN decomposition.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 95; 16945-16
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: The first study is presented in which the mixing ratios of peroxyactyl nitrate (PAN) and nitrogen oxides, as well as those of peroxypropionyl nitrate and O3 and relevant meteorological parameters, were measured concurrently at a location that receives clean, continental air. The results show that, in clean conditions, nitrogen oxides present in the form of PAN can be as much or more abundant than the inorganic form. In addition, PAN can be an important source of peroxyacetyl radicals which may be important to oxidation processes in the gas as well as liquid phases.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Nature (ISSN 0028-0836); 318; 347-349
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) atmospheric concentration samples were collected hourly from an ocean vessel 50 mi off the continental coast traveling from Seattle to Chile in 1984. Air concentration data for PAN and light hydrocarbons (LHC) were also taken by aircraft in the same period over Wyoming and Colorado and over the eastern Pacific. The PAN concentrations were higher and more variable in the Northern Hemisphere than in the Southern Hemisphere, increased with altitude, and were higher in the winter than in summer. The summer PAN concentrations were higher in the continental troposphere than in the marine troposphere. The results show that photochemical models of the atmosphere which do not account for the reaction between nonmethane hydrocarbons and PAN will probably overestimate the abundances of NO(x) and HNO3. The collection of further PAN concentration data is recommended as a means to characterizing the moderating role of PAN in the photochemistry of the troposphere.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Nature (ISSN 0028-0836); 321; 588-591
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-08-28
    Description: Measurements of NO, NO2, PAN and NO(y) are presented for the summertime middle/lower troposphere over northern high latitudes. Chemical signatures from concurrent measurements of O3, CO, C2H2, C2H6, C3H8, C2Cl4, and H2O are used to characterize factors affecting the budget and distribution of N(x)O(y) in the Arctic and Sub-Arctic tropospheric air masses sampled over Alaska during the NASA Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE 3A). The results implicate biomass burning in Siberia as the probable source of about one-third of the NO(y) abundance within the middle lower troposphere over Alaska and the downward transport of air from altitude in the vicinity of the tropopause as a major contributor to the abundance of NO(y) within the lower 6 km column over Alaska.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 97; D15; p. 16,481-16,509.
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-08-28
    Description: Budgets of O3, NO(x), and NO(y), and acetic acid in the Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE 3A) flight region are constructed using photochemical model statistics based on aircraft observations. A Lagrangian model is used to reconstruct the photochemical history of two aged biomass fire plumes sampled by the ABLE 3A aircraft. It is shown that anthropogenic influence on O3 levels in the Arctic may manifest itself not by long-range transport of pollution-derived O3, but rather by a decrease of the regional photochemical sink due to the presence of small amounts of NO(x). The low concentrations of NO(x) measured in ABLE 3A were sufficient to reduce the rate of photochemical loss appreciably relative to a NO(x)-free atmosphere, thus increasing the O3 lifetime. It is shown that decomposition of PAN can account for most of the NO(x) measured below 4-km altitude, but for only 20 percent at 6-km altitude. A lifetime of 29 days is estimated for NO(y) in the ABLE 23A flight region.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 97; D15; p. 16,421-16,431.
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