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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2006-01-12
    Description: As a working definition of the extent of the middle atmosphere (MA), the height range from 30 to 100 km was adopted. The neutral and ionic composition and the dynamics within this height range are, for the most part, poorly understood. From available information, the importance of various particle and photon energy sources, including their variability, for ionization of the neutral atmosphere in this height range is assessed. The following topics are discussed: (1) penetration of the MA by particle and electromagnetic energy; (2) ionization sources for the MA; (3) galactic cosmic rays; (4) solar H Ly alpha, other EUV, and X-rays; (5) magnetospheric electrons and bremsstrahlung X-rays; and (6) solar cosmic rays.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA. Goddard Space Flight Center Middle Atmosphere Electrodyn.; p 43-70
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: Search coil magnetometer, riometer, photometer, and ELF-VLF receiver data obtained at South Pole Station and McMurdo, Antarctica during selected days in March and April 1986 are compared. Narrow-band magnetic pulsations in the Pc 3 period range are observed simultaneously at both stations in the dayside sector during times of low IMF cone angle, but are considerably stronger at South Pole, which is located at a latitude near the nominal foot point of the dayside cusp/cleft region. Pulsations in auroral light at 427.8 nm wavelength are often observed with magnetic pulsations at South Pole, but such optical pulsations are not observed at McMurdo. The observations suggest that precipitating magnetosheathlike electrons at nominal dayside cleft latitudes are at times modulated with frequencies similar to those of upstream waves. These particles may play an important role, via modification of ionospheric currents and conductivities, in the transmission of upstream wave signals into the magnetosphere and in the generation of dayside high-latitude Pc 3 pulsations.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 95; 2447-245
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: Ground-based magnetometer, photometer, and riometer data are combined with low-altitude particle and electric and magnetic field data from the DE-2 spacecraft to provide a more complete characterization of the magnetospheric and tropospheric environment in which morning sector asymmetric Pi 1 pulsations are observed. The results of the study are in agreement with recent conclusions that morning sector asymmetric Pi 1 pulsations are physically related to pulsating aurorae. Precipitation of energetic electrons (E greater than 35 keV) coincides in every instance with the occurrence of these pulsations.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 91; 1535-154
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: The characteristics and possible conditions which lead to the sudden poleward movement of auroras and associated magnetic and ionospheric disturbances from below the northern horizon are discussed. The abrupt excursions were recorded in terms of 427.8 nm photometry, 30 MHz riometry, and three-component flux gate magnetometry data recorded at South Pole Station. The data were taken at a 1 Hz rate during various occurrences in 1982-83 and compared with ISEE 1 and 2 electron flux data from the magnetotail. The poleward shift occurred from 30-60 min after the onset of a substorm expansive phase and coincided with recoveries of the magnetotail plasma sheet at distances of 15-20 earth radii. It is concluded that the excursions are part of the retreat of the substorm neutral line outward through the magnetotail during a late phase of substorms.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: AD-A167791 , AFGL-TR-86-0093 , Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 91; 3314-332
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-08-28
    Description: This paper examines an isolated magnetospheric VLF/radio noise event that is highly suggestive of the triggering of terrestrial auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) bu solar type III radio emission and of a close relation between AKR and broadband hiss. The solar type III burst was measured on polar HF riometers and was coincident with local dayside VLF/LF noise emission bursts at South Pole station. It was also coincident with AKR bursts detected onthe AMPTE/IRM satellite, at the same magnetic local time as South Pole. On the basis of the close association of AKR and VLF bursts, and from geometric considerations relating to wave propagation, it is likely that the AKR source was on the dayside and on field lines near South Pole station. The general level of geomagnetic activity was very low. However, an isolated magnetic impulse event (MIE) accompanied by a riometer absorption pulse was in progress when all of the VLF/radio noise bursts occurred. The very close association of the typew III burst at HF with the AKR is consistent with external stimulation of the AKR, is different, more immediate,triggering process than that implied by Calvert (1981) is invoked. It is suggested here that some of the HF solar radiant energy may decay into waves with frequences comparable to those of the AKR by paraetric excitation or some other process, thus providing the few background photons required for the generation of AKR by the WU and Lee (1979) cyclotron maser instability. The AKR, perhaps by modifying the magnetospheric electron velocity distribution, might have produced the observed VLF emissions. Alternatively, the VLF emissions may have arisen from the same anisotropic and unstable electron distribution function responsible for the AKR.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A1; p. 281-288
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: The relationships among cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning, sferics, whistlers, VLF amplitude perturbations, and other ionospheric phenomena occurring during substorm events were investigated using data from simultaneous ground-based observations of narrow-band and broad-band VLF radio waves and of CG lightning made during the 1987 Wave-Induced Particle Precipitation campaign conducted from Wallops Island (Virginia). Results suggest that the data collected on ionospheric phenomena during this event may represent new evidence of direct coupling of lightning energy to the lower ionosphere, either in conjunction with or in the absence of gyroresonant interactions between whistler mode waves and electrons in the magnetosphere.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 97; 65-75
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: A series of recent studies of Pc 3 magnetic pulsations in the dayside outer magnetosphere has given new insights into the possible mechanisms of entry of ULF wave power into the magnetosphere from a bow shock-related upstream source. A comparison is made of data from two 10-hour intervals on successive days in April 1986 and then a possible model for transmission of pulsation signals from the magnetosheath into the dayside magnetosphere is presented. Clear interplanetary magnetic field magnitude control of dayside resonant harmonic pulsations and band-limited very high latitude pulsations, as well as pulsation-modulated precipitation of what appear to be magnetosheath/boundary layer electrons are shown. It is believed that this modulated precipitation may be responsible for the propagation of upstream wave power in the Pc 3 frequency band into the high-latitude ionosphere, from whence it may be transported throughout the dayside outer magnetosphere by means of an 'ionospheric transistor'. In this model, modulations in ionospheric conductivity caused by cusp/cleft precipitation cause varying ionospheric currents with frequency spectra determined by the upstream waves; these modulations will be superimposed on the Birkeland currents, which close via these ionospheric currents. Modulated region 2 Birkeland currents will in turn provide a narrow-band source of wave energy to a wide range of dayside local times in the outer magnetosphere.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 96; 1527-154
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: The Siple Station conjugate locations in the Northern Hemisphere are examined for the epoch 1975-1990 according to the predictions of three internal source geomagnetic field models (1GRF 1980, Magsat 1980, Barraclough 1975) and one external field model (Mead/Fairfield) under quiet and disturbed conditions. The conjugate location systematically changes in the interval studied, making it imperative that changes be made in the locations of the Northern Hemisphere geophysical stations during the reactivation of Siple Station in 1985-1987.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 89; 5655-565
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: For three magnetically disturbed days in early 1980, data from south polar masses of the Magsat satellite are compared with data from search coil magnetometer, riometer, and photometer instrumentation at Siple, Antarctica. It is found that during each Magsat polar pass in the morning sector, the level of Pi 1 activity correlates well with the intensities of three-dimensional current systems. Fine structure is often observed in the field-aligned currents during periods of intense Pi activity. Among the Birkeland currents are 2-s to 10-s (16-80 km) structured perturbations; these are evident in the transverse components of the field and are thought to indicate filamentary currents. Pi 1 amplitudes are found to be considerably larger when region 2 Birkeland currents are overhead than when they are not. In one case, detailed features are identified in the high-resolution Magsat magnetic field data that may be current fluctuations related to asymmetric Pi 1.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 89; 1602-161
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-06-27
    Description: The synchronous altitude satellite ATS 1 data and near-conjugate measurements of bremsstrahlung X-rays and ground magnetic variations were used to analyze an event of modulated auroral zone electron precipitation and magnetic pulsations in the Pc range. Transverse, azimuthal, nearly linearly polarized waves observed at ATS 1, ground magnetic pulsations at College, Alaska, and intervals of modulated electron precipitation centered on local magnetic moon, and noted in the X-ray data from Fort Yukon, Alaska, are discussed, noting that the origin of the Pc 3 waves is attributed to local field line resonances induced by Kelvin-Helmholtz instability at the magnetopause. The wave resonance model can explain observed differences in the pulsation activity at the ground, balloon, and satellite if account is taken of the spatial sensitivities of the techniques and the location of observing sites with respect to the probable location of resonant field lines. The data suggest that electron precipitation pulsations will correlate with Pc 3 magnetic pulsations when substorm injections coupled with azimuthal drift provide enhanced energetic particle fluxes with dayside resonance regions.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research; 84; Aug. 1
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