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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Contours and gridded values are given for seven years of monthly mean total ozone data derived from observations with the Backscattered Ultraviolet instrument on Nimbus-4 for the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. The instrument, algorithm, uncertainties in derived ozone and systematic changes in the bias with respect to the international groundbased ozone network of Dobson instruments, are discussed.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-RP-1098 , REPT-82F0128-VOL-1 , NAS 1.61:1098
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A ground based search for the 856.50137/cm R(9.5) and for the 859.76765 R(12.5) transitions of stratospheric (Cl-35)O was made in the solar absorption mode using an infrared heterodyne spectrometer. Lines due to stratospheric HNO3 and tropospheric OCS were detected, at about 0.3% absorption levels. The expected lines of ClO in this same region were not detected, even though the optical depth of the ClO lines should be on the order of 0.2% using currently accepted ClO abundances. These infrared measurements suggest that stratospheric ClO is at least a factor of 7 less abundant than is indicated by indirect in situ fluorescence measurements, and the upper limit of 2.4x10 to the 13th power molecules/sq cm to the integrated column density of ClO is a factor of over 4 less than is indicted by microwave measurements. Results imply that the release of fluorocarbon precursors of ClO may be significantly less important for the destruction of stratospheric ozone than was previously thought.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-83939 , NAS 1.15:83939
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: A computer automated data acquisition system for atmospheric emittance, and global solar, downwelled diffuse solar, and direct solar irradiances is discussed. Hourly-integrated global solar and atmospheric emitted radiances were measured continuously from February 1981 and hourly-integrated diffuse solar and direct solar irradiances were measured continuously from October 1981. One-minute integrated data are available for each of these components from February 1982. The results of the correlation of global insolation with fractional cloud cover for the first year's data set. A February data set, composed of one-minute integrated global insolation and direct solar irradiance, cloud cover fractions, meteorological data from nearby weather stations, and GOES East satellite radiometric data, was collected to test the theoretical model of satellite radiometric data correlation and develop the cloud dependence for the local measurement site.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-169272 , NAS 1.26:169272
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The absolute rate constant was measured by the technique of flash photolysis-laser induced fluorescence (FP-LIF). NH2 radicals were produced by the flash photolysis of ammonia and the fluorescent NH2 photons were measured by multiscaling techniques. At each temperature, the results were independent of variations in total pressure, and flash intensity. The results are compared with previous determinations using the techniques of mass spectrometry, absorption spectroscopy, laser absorption spectroscopy, and laser induced fluorescence. The implications of the results are discussed with regard to combustion, post combustion, and atmospheric chemistry. The results are also discussed theoretically.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-83928 , NAS 1.15:83928
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Sensitivity studies using thermal models indicated sources of errors in the determination of thermal inertia from HCMM data. Apparent thermal inertia, with only simple atmospheric radiance corrections to the measured surface temperature, would be sufficient for most operational requirements for surface thermal inertia. Thermal data does have additional information about the nature of surface material that is not available in visible and near infrared reflectance data. Color composites of daytime temperature, nighttime temperature, and albedo were often more useful than thermal inertia images alone for discrimination of lithologic boundaries. A modeling study, using the annual heating cycle, indicated the feasibility of looking for geologic features buried under as much as a meter of alluvial material. The spatial resolution of HCMM data is a major limiting factor in the usefulness of the data for geologic applications. Future thermal infrared satellite sensors should provide spatial resolution comparable to that of the LANDSAT data.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: JPL-PUB-83-56 , NASA-CR-173211 , NAS 1.26:173211
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Six years of twice daily global analyses were used to create and study a lengthy time series of high temporal resolution angular momentum values. Changes in these atmospheric values were compared to independently determined charges in the rotation rate of the solid Earth. Finally, the atmospheric data was examined in more detail to determine the time and space scales on which variations in momentum occur within the atmosphere and which regions are contributing most to the changes found in the global integral. The data and techniques used to derive the time series of momentum values are described.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-170502 , ERT-A345-T2 , NAS 1.26:170502
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2008-07-17
    Description: The static environment of middle and upper tropospheric clouds is characterized. Computed relative humidity with respect to ice is used to diagnose the presence of cloud layer. The deduced seasonal mean cloud cover estimates based on this technique are shown to be reasonable. The cases are stratified by season and pressure thickness, and the dry static stability, vertical wind speed shear, and Richardson number are computed for three layers for each case. Mean values for each parameter are presented for each stratification and layer. The relative frequency of occurrence of various structures is presented for each stratification. The observed values of each parameter and the observed structure of each parameter are quite variable. Structures corresponding to any of a number of different conceptual models may be found. Moist adiabatic conditions are not commonly observed and the stratification based on thickness yields substantially different results for each group.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: CSU-ATS-327 , Initial Studies of Middle and Upper Tropospheric Stratiform Clouds (ISSN 0067-0340); 78 p
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: Vertical profiles of upper-atmosphere temperature and density over northern Europe constructed from data obtained in November and December 1980, as part of the Energy Budget Campaign, are presented and discussed. Temperature sondes, passive spheres, accelerometers, mass and IR spectrometers, and density gauges were rocket launched from ESRANGE, Sweden and Andoya, Norway; the data are combined with ground measurements to construct 20-120-km-altitude profiles for night periods of severe, moderate, and minimal geomagnetic storm activity. The profiles are compared with each other and with the 1976 U.S. Standard Atmosphere (USSA). In the temperature profiles, increased geomagnetic activity is associated with lower temperatures and flattened profiles in the stratopause region, and higher temperatures in the 70-90-km range. The density profiles show a variation of less than about 15 percent, except for a 25-percent range for the moderate-geomagnetic-activity period. The inferred wavelengths and periods are those expected for internal gravity waves at this altitude, and the divergence from USSA is accounted for by season and latitude dependence.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: (ISSN 0273-1177)
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  • 9
  • 10
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: Observations of plasma at altitudes of 2-3 earth radii with the High Altitude Plasma Instrument (HAPI) on DE-1 indicate two distinct types of counterstreaming electron events. The type 1 event is characterized by two Maxwellian distribution functions, an isotropic high-temperature component and a field-aligned low temperature component. The type 2 event is distinguished by beams parallel and antiparallel to the magnetic field direction. The observations suggest two distinct mechanisms for accelerating counterstreaming electrons. Type 1 events appear to involve wave-particle interactions while type 2 events imply direct acceleration by oppositely-directed electric fields pointing toward the satellite along magnetic field lines.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: AFGL-TR-82-0337 , AD-A121706 , Geophysical Research Letters; 9; Sept
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