Vertical profiles of upper-atmosphere temperature and density over northern Europe constructed from data obtained in November and December 1980, as part of the Energy Budget Campaign, are presented and discussed. Temperature sondes, passive spheres, accelerometers, mass and IR spectrometers, and density gauges were rocket launched from ESRANGE, Sweden and Andoya, Norway; the data are combined with ground measurements to construct 20-120-km-altitude profiles for night periods of severe, moderate, and minimal geomagnetic storm activity. The profiles are compared with each other and with the 1976 U.S. Standard Atmosphere (USSA). In the temperature profiles, increased geomagnetic activity is associated with lower temperatures and flattened profiles in the stratopause region, and higher temperatures in the 70-90-km range. The density profiles show a variation of less than about 15 percent, except for a 25-percent range for the moderate-geomagnetic-activity period. The inferred wavelengths and periods are those expected for internal gravity waves at this altitude, and the divergence from USSA is accounted for by season and latitude dependence.