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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-07-18
    Description: In many policy areas it is essential to use the best estimates of life expectancy, but such estimates are vital to most areas of pension policy – from indexed access age and the calculation of initial benefits to the financial sustainability of pension schemes and the operation of their balancing mechanism. This paper presents the conceptual differences between static period and dynamic cohort mortality tables, estimates the differences in life expectancy between both tables using data from Portugal and Spain, and compares official estimates of both life expectancy estimates for Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States for 1981, 2010 and 2060. This comparison reveals major differences between period and cohort life expectancy in and between countries and across years. Using measures of period instead of cohort life expectancy creates an implicit subsidy for individuals of 30 percent or more, with potentially stark consequences on the financial sustainability of pension schemes. These and other implications for pension policy are explored and next steps suggested.
    Keywords: D9 ; G22 ; H55 ; J13 ; J14 ; J16 ; ddc:330 ; cross-country comparison ; Lee-Carter ; life expectancy indexation ; balancing mechanism
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 2
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    Munich: Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute (CESifo)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-27
    Description: In many policy areas it is essential to use the best estimates of life expectancy, but it is vital to most areas of pension policy. This paper presents the conceptual differences between static period and dynamic cohort mortality tables, estimates the differences in life expectancy for Portugal and Spain, and compares official estimates of both life expectancy estimates for Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States for 1981, 2010, and 2060. These comparisons reveal major differences between period and cohort life expectancy in and between countries and across years. The implications of using wrong estimates for pension policy, including financial sustainability, are explored.
    Keywords: G22 ; H55 ; J14 ; ddc:330 ; cross-country comparison ; Lee-Carter ; life expectancy indexation ; balancing mechanism
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2017-01-20
    Description: This paper demonstrates that the link between heterogeneity in longevity and lifetime income across countries is mostly high and often increasing; that it translates into an implicit tax/subsidy, with rates reaching 20 percent and higher in some countries; that such rates risk perverting redistributive objectives of pension schemes and distorting individual lifecycle labor supply and savings decisions; and that this in turn risks invalidating current reform approaches of a closer contribution-benefit link and life expectancy-indexed retirement age. All of this calls for mechanisms that neutralize or at least significantly reduce the effects of heterogeneity in longevity through changes in pension design. The paper suggests and explores a number of interventions in the accumulation, benefit determination, and disbursement stages. Among the explored approaches, a two-tier contribution structure seems promising, as a moderate social contribution rate that is already proportionally allocated to the average contribution base is able to broadly compensate for empirically established heterogeneity in the life expectancy/lifetime income relationship.
    Keywords: D9 ; G22 ; H55 ; J13 ; J14 ; J16 ; ddc:330 ; defined contribution scheme ; two-tier contribution structure ; proxied life expectancy ; tax/subsidy structure
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2016-08-27
    Description: Heterogeneity in longevity between socioeconomic groups is increasingly documented for developed economies and is reviewed in the paper. Heterogeneity in life expectancy disaggregated by main socioeconomic characteristics – such as age, gender, race, health, education, profession, income, and wealth – is sizable and has not declined in recent decades. The prospects for future decline are not strong, either; perhaps even to the contrary. As heterogeneity is closely linked to income or earnings (i.e., the contribution base of earnings-related social programs such as pensions) and as heterogeneity is empirically sizable, the result is major implicit taxes for some groups – particularly the less educated and low earners – and major subsidies for other groups – particularly highly educated individuals and high-income earners. The implications for pension reform and scheme design are substantial as taxes/subsidies counteract the envisaged effects of (i) a closer contribution-benefit link, (ii) a later formal retirement age to address population aging, and (iii) more individual funding and private annuities to compensate for reduced public generosity.
    Keywords: D9 ; G22 ; H55 ; J13 ; J14 ; J16 ; ddc:330 ; implicit subsidy ; life expectancy ; gender ; lifetime income ; implicit tax
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2008-07-03
    Description: Reprogramming of somatic cells is a valuable tool to understand the mechanisms of regaining pluripotency and further opens up the possibility of generating patient-specific pluripotent stem cells. Reprogramming of mouse and human somatic cells into pluripotent stem cells, designated as induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, has been possible with the expression of the transcription factor quartet Oct4 (also known as Pou5f1), Sox2, c-Myc and Klf4 (refs 1-11). Considering that ectopic expression of c-Myc causes tumorigenicity in offspring and that retroviruses themselves can cause insertional mutagenesis, the generation of iPS cells with a minimal number of factors may hasten the clinical application of this approach. Here we show that adult mouse neural stem cells express higher endogenous levels of Sox2 and c-Myc than embryonic stem cells, and that exogenous Oct4 together with either Klf4 or c-Myc is sufficient to generate iPS cells from neural stem cells. These two-factor iPS cells are similar to embryonic stem cells at the molecular level, contribute to development of the germ line, and form chimaeras. We propose that, in inducing pluripotency, the number of reprogramming factors can be reduced when using somatic cells that endogenously express appropriate levels of complementing factors.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kim, Jeong Beom -- Zaehres, Holm -- Wu, Guangming -- Gentile, Luca -- Ko, Kinarm -- Sebastiano, Vittorio -- Arauzo-Bravo, Marcos J -- Ruau, David -- Han, Dong Wook -- Zenke, Martin -- Scholer, Hans R -- England -- Nature. 2008 Jul 31;454(7204):646-50. doi: 10.1038/nature07061. Epub 2008 Jun 29.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Max Planck Institute for Molecular Biomedicine, Rontgenstrasse 20, 48149 Munster, NRW, Germany.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18594515" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult Stem Cells/*cytology/metabolism ; Animals ; Cell Differentiation/genetics ; Cells, Cultured ; *Cellular Reprogramming ; Chimera ; DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; Female ; Gene Expression Profiling ; Genes, myc/genetics ; HMGB Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; Homeodomain Proteins/genetics ; Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors/genetics/metabolism ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Nude ; Mice, Transgenic ; Neurons/*cytology ; Octamer Transcription Factor-3/genetics/metabolism ; Pluripotent Stem Cells/*cytology/*metabolism ; Proteins/genetics ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc/metabolism ; RNA, Untranslated ; SOXB1 Transcription Factors ; Transcription Factors/genetics/metabolism ; Transduction, Genetic
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2012-12-04
    Description: Mechanisms controlling the proliferative activity of neural stem and progenitor cells (NSPCs) have a pivotal role to ensure life-long neurogenesis in the mammalian brain. How metabolic programs are coupled with NSPC activity remains unknown. Here we show that fatty acid synthase (Fasn), the key enzyme of de novo lipogenesis, is highly active in adult NSPCs and that conditional deletion of Fasn in mouse NSPCs impairs adult neurogenesis. The rate of de novo lipid synthesis and subsequent proliferation of NSPCs is regulated by Spot14, a gene previously implicated in lipid metabolism, that we found to be selectively expressed in low proliferating adult NSPCs. Spot14 reduces the availability of malonyl-CoA, which is an essential substrate for Fasn to fuel lipogenesis. Thus, we identify here a functional coupling between the regulation of lipid metabolism and adult NSPC proliferation.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3587167/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3587167/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Knobloch, Marlen -- Braun, Simon M G -- Zurkirchen, Luis -- von Schoultz, Carolin -- Zamboni, Nicola -- Arauzo-Bravo, Marcos J -- Kovacs, Werner J -- Karalay, Ozlem -- Suter, Ueli -- Machado, Raquel A C -- Roccio, Marta -- Lutolf, Matthias P -- Semenkovich, Clay F -- Jessberger, Sebastian -- P30 DK020579/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK076729/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK088083/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 Jan 10;493(7431):226-30. doi: 10.1038/nature11689. Epub 2012 Dec 2.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Brain Research Institute, Faculty of Medicine, University of Zurich, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23201681" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult Stem Cells/cytology/*metabolism ; Animals ; Cell Proliferation ; Dentate Gyrus/metabolism ; Fatty Acid Synthases/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; Gene Expression Profiling ; Hippocampus/cytology/metabolism ; *Lipogenesis ; Malonyl Coenzyme A/metabolism ; Mice ; Mice, Transgenic ; Neural Stem Cells/cytology/*metabolism ; Neurogenesis ; Nuclear Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; Transcription Factors/genetics/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2006-02-25
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Salazar-Bravo, Jorge -- Phillips, Carleton J -- Bradley, Robert D -- Baker, Robert J -- Yates, Terry L -- Ruedas, Luis A -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2006 Feb 24;311(5764):1099-100; author reply 1099-100.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16497914" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Chiroptera/*classification/*virology ; *Coronavirus ; *Disease Reservoirs ; *SARS Virus ; Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology/transmission/virology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2007-11-03
    Description: The evolution of insect resistance threatens the effectiveness of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins that are widely used in sprays and transgenic crops. Resistance to Bt toxins in some insects is linked with mutations that disrupt a toxin-binding cadherin protein. We show that susceptibility to the Bt toxin Cry1Ab was reduced by cadherin gene silencing with RNA interference in Manduca sexta, confirming cadherin's role in Bt toxicity. Native Cry1A toxins required cadherin to form oligomers, but modified Cry1A toxins lacking one alpha-helix did not. The modified toxins killed cadherin-silenced M. sexta and Bt-resistant Pectinophora gossypiella that had cadherin deletion mutations. Our findings suggest that cadherin promotes Bt toxicity by facilitating toxin oligomerization and demonstrate that the modified Bt toxins may be useful against pests resistant to standard Bt toxins.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Soberon, Mario -- Pardo-Lopez, Liliana -- Lopez, Idalia -- Gomez, Isabel -- Tabashnik, Bruce E -- Bravo, Alejandra -- 1R01 AI066014/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2007 Dec 7;318(5856):1640-2. Epub 2007 Nov 1.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Instituto de Biotecnologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 510-3, Cuernavaca 62250, Morelos, Mexico. mario@ibt.unam.mx〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17975031" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Bacterial Proteins/chemistry/*genetics/metabolism/*toxicity ; Bacterial Toxins/chemistry/*genetics/metabolism/*toxicity ; Cadherins/genetics/metabolism ; Endotoxins/chemistry/*genetics/metabolism/*toxicity ; Genetic Engineering ; Hemolysin Proteins/chemistry/*genetics/metabolism/*toxicity ; *Insecticide Resistance ; Larva ; *Manduca/genetics/metabolism ; *Moths/genetics/metabolism ; Mutation ; *Pest Control, Biological ; RNA Interference
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2012-12-22
    Description: Modern attempts to produce biogeographic maps focus on the distribution of species, and the maps are typically drawn without phylogenetic considerations. Here, we generate a global map of zoogeographic regions by combining data on the distributions and phylogenetic relationships of 21,037 species of amphibians, birds, and mammals. We identify 20 distinct zoogeographic regions, which are grouped into 11 larger realms. We document the lack of support for several regions previously defined based on distributional data and show that spatial turnover in the phylogenetic composition of vertebrate assemblages is higher in the Southern than in the Northern Hemisphere. We further show that the integration of phylogenetic information provides valuable insight on historical relationships among regions, permitting the identification of evolutionarily unique regions of the world.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Holt, Ben G -- Lessard, Jean-Philippe -- Borregaard, Michael K -- Fritz, Susanne A -- Araujo, Miguel B -- Dimitrov, Dimitar -- Fabre, Pierre-Henri -- Graham, Catherine H -- Graves, Gary R -- Jonsson, Knud A -- Nogues-Bravo, David -- Wang, Zhiheng -- Whittaker, Robert J -- Fjeldsa, Jon -- Rahbek, Carsten -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Jan 4;339(6115):74-8. doi: 10.1126/science.1228282. Epub 2012 Dec 20.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Center for Macroecology, Evolution, and Climate, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, 2100 Copenhagen O, Denmark.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23258408" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amphibians/classification ; Animals ; Birds/classification ; *Climate ; Mammals/classification ; *Phylogeny ; Phylogeography
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2015-09-19
    Description: Throughout life, neural stem cells (NSCs) generate neurons in the mammalian brain. Using photobleaching experiments, we found that during cell division in vitro and within the developing mouse forebrain, NSCs generate a lateral diffusion barrier in the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum, thereby promoting asymmetric segregation of cellular components. The diffusion barrier weakens with age and in response to impairment of lamin-associated nuclear envelope constituents. Weakening of the diffusion barrier disrupts asymmetric segregation of damaged proteins, a product of aging. Damaged proteins are asymmetrically inherited by the nonstem daughter cell in embryonic and young adult NSC divisions, whereas in the older adult brain, damaged proteins are more symmetrically distributed between progeny. Thus, these data identify a mechanism of how damage that accumulates with age is asymmetrically distributed during somatic stem cell division.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Moore, D L -- Pilz, G A -- Arauzo-Bravo, M J -- Barral, Y -- Jessberger, S -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Sep 18;349(6254):1334-8. doi: 10.1126/science.aac9868.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Brain Research Institute, Faculty of Medicine and Science, University of Zurich, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland. ; Biodonostia Health Research Institute, 20014 San Sebastian, Spain. IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, 48013 Bilbao, Spain. ; Institute of Biochemistry, Department of Biology, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich, Switzerland. ; Brain Research Institute, Faculty of Medicine and Science, University of Zurich, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland. jessberger@hifo.uzh.ch.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26383951" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Cell Aging ; *Cell Division ; Diffusion ; Endoplasmic Reticulum/physiology/ultrastructure ; Intracellular Membranes/physiology/ultrastructure ; Lamin Type A/*metabolism ; Mice ; Neural Stem Cells/*cytology/*metabolism ; Photobleaching ; Prosencephalon/cytology/growth & development/metabolism ; Protein Transport
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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