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  • Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics  (2)
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-07-18
    Description: The stratospheric observatory for infrared astronomy (SOFIA) is a 2.5 meter aperture Cassegrain telescope with a Nasmyth focus that will be housed in an open cavity in the Boeing 747-SP aircraft and operated at altitudes around 41,000 feet for infrared (IR) viewing of celestial events of astronomical nature. At these altitudes the IR viewing capability of SOFIA far exceeds that of any ground based system. To minimize IR transmission losses, SOFIA will operate with an open cavity. Such an open cavity during flight creates several challenging aerodynamic and aeroacoustic design problems. Foremost of these are: the shear layer over the cavity may cause unwanted resonance if the cavity is untreated; this might give rise to excessive sound pressure levels (SPL) in the cavity and thus affect the unsteady loads on the telescope; the unsteady flow within the cavity produces large dynamic loads and moments that will impact the pointing accuracy of the telescope; the open cavity and the shear layer control devices produce additional drag that will affect directly the time of flight of the mission; the aft location of the cavity down stream of port wing will affect the the flow on the aircraft control surfaces and thus the stability of the aircraft. Also, the highly turbulent shear layer over the cavity and the temperature gradients and 'hot spots' within the cavity can produce a wave front error of the image when it reaches the focal plane of the recorder.
    Keywords: Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics
    Type: 1997 ASME Fluids Engineering Conference; 22-26 Jun. 1997; Vancouver; Canada
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-07-18
    Description: The usefulness of vortex-fitting in the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods to preserve the vortex strength and structure while convecting in a uniform free stream is demonstrated through the numerical simulations of two- and three-dimensional blade-vortex interactions. The fundamental premise of the formulation is the velocity and pressure field of the interacting vortex are unaltered either in the presence of an airfoil or a rotor blade or by the resulting nonlinear interactional flowfield. Although, the governing Euler and Navier-Stokes equations are nonlinear and independent solutions cannot be superposed, the interactional flowfield can be accurately captured by adding and subtracting the flowfield of the convecting vortex at each instant. The aerodynamics and aeroacoustics of two- and three-dimensional blade-vortex interactions have been calculated in Refs. 1-6 using this concept. Some of the results from these publications and similar other published material will be summarized in this paper.
    Keywords: Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics
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