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  • Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer  (12)
  • 1955-1959  (12)
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-07-10
    Description: A method is presented for the calculation of lift coefficients for rectangular lifting surfaces of aspect ratios from 0.125 to 10 operating at finite depths beneath the water surface, including the zero depth or planing condition. Theoretical values are compared with experimental values obtained at various depths of submergence with lifting surfaces of aspect ratios from 0.125 to 10. The method can also be applied to hydrofoils with dihedral. Lift coefficients computed by this method are in good agreement with existing experimental data for aspect ratios from 0.125 to 10 and dihedral angles up to 30 deg.
    Keywords: Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer
    Type: NASA-TR-R-14
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-08-28
    Description: The profiles and thicknesses of normal shock waves in argon at Mach numbers of 1.335, 1.454, 1.576, and 1-713 were determined experimentally by means of a free-molecule probe whose equilibrium temperature is related by kinetic theory to the local flow properties and their gradients. Comparisons were made between the experimental shock profiles and the theoretical profiles calculated from the Navier-Stokes equations, the Grad 13-moment equations, and the Burnett equations. New, very accurate numerical integrations of the Burnett equations were obtained for this purpose with results quite different from those found by Zoller, to whom the solution of this problem is frequently attributed. The experimental shock profiles were predicted with approximately equal success by the Navier-Stokes and Burnett theories, while the 13-moment method was definitely less satisfactory. A surprising feature of the theoretical results is the relatively small difference in predictions between the Navier-Stokes and Burnett theories in the present range of shock strengths and the contrastingly large difference between predictions of Burnett and the 13-moment theories. It is concluded that the Navier-Stokes equations are correct for weak shocks and that within the present shock strength range the Burnett equations make no improvement which merits the trouble of solving them. For shocks of noticeably greater strength, say with a shock Mach number of more than 2.5, it remains fundamentally doubtful that any of these theories can be correct.
    Keywords: Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer
    Type: NASA-MEMO-12-14-58W
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-08-15
    Description: Thrust, air-handling, and base-pressure characteristics of five ejector configurations were investigated in the Lewis 8-by 6-foot wind tunnel at free-stream Mach numbers from 0 to 2.0 over ranges of primary-jet pressure ratio up to 24 and corrected secondary weight-flow ratio up to 13 percent. The ejector-shroud geometries varied from convergent to divergent. Base pressure ratio and ejector performance were interrelated by means of an exit-momentum parameter. Correlations, to at least a first approximation, with base pressure ratio, of both internal-ejector-flow separation and external-flow separation over the model boattail were shown. Furthermore, it was shown that magnitudes and exact trends in base pressure ratio depended largely, and in a complicated fashion, on ejector geometry and amount of secondary flow. External-stream effects on ejector jet thrust were determined for a typical schedule of jet-engine pressure ratios. With the exception of the ejector having the largest (1.81) shroud-exit-to primary-diameter ratio, there were no stream effects at Mach numbers from 1.5 to 2.0 and variations from quiescent-air thrust data were less than 2.5 percent at the subsonic speed investigated.
    Keywords: Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer
    Type: NASA-TM-X-23
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-08-16
    Description: The experimentally determined interaction effects of a side jet exhausting near the base of an ogive-cylinder model are presented and discussed. The interaction force appears to be independent of main-stream Mach number, boundary-layer condition (laminar or turbulent), angle of attack, and forebody length. The ratio of interaction force to jet force is found to be inversely proportional to the square root of the product of jet stagnation-to-free-stream pressure ratio and jet-to-body diameter ratio.
    Keywords: Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer
    Type: NASA-MEMO-12-5-58W
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-08-16
    Description: Heat-transfer coefficients and pressure distributions were obtained on a 4-inch-diameter flat-face cylinder in the Langley Unitary Plan wind tunnel. The measured stagnation heat-transfer coefficient agrees well with 55 percent of the theoretical value predicted by the modified Sibulkin method for a hemisphere. Pressure measurements indicated the dimensionless velocity gradient parameter r du\ a(sub t) dx, where x=0 at the stagnation point was approximately 0.3 and invariant throughout the Mach number range from 2.49 to 4.44 and the Reynolds number range from 0.77 x 10(exp 6) to 1.46 x 10(exp 6). The heat-transfer coefficients on the cylindrical afterbody could be predicted with reasonable accuracy by flat-plate theory at an angle of attack of 0 deg. At angles of attack the cylindrical afterbody stagnation-line heat transfer could be computed from swept-cylinder theory for large distances back of the nose when the Reynolds number is based on the distance from the flow reattachment points.
    Keywords: Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer
    Type: NASA-TM-X-19
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-08-15
    Description: The results of some experimental and theoretical studies of the interaction of oblique shock waves with laminar boundary layers are presented. Detailed measurements of pressure distribution, shear distribution, and velocity profiles were made during the interaction of oblique shock waves with laminar boundary layers on a flat plate. From these measurements a model was derived to predict the pressure levels characteristic of separation and the length of the separated region.
    Keywords: Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer
    Type: NASA-MEMO-2-18-59W
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-08-15
    Description: A detailed report is given of exact (numerical) solutions of the laminar-boundary-layer equations for the Prandtl number range appropriate to liquid metals (0.003 to 0.03). Consideration is given to the following situations: (1) forced convection over a flat plate for the conditions of uniform wall temperature and uniform wall heat flux, and (2) free convection over an isothermal vertical plate. Tabulations of the new solutions are given in detail. Results are presented for the heat-transfer and shear-stress characteristics; temperature and velocity distributions are also shown. The heat-transfer results are correlated in terms of dimensionless parameters that vary only slightly over the entire liquid-metal range. Previous analytical and experimental work on low Prandtl number boundary layers is surveyed and compared with the new exact solutions.
    Keywords: Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer
    Type: NASA-MEMO-2-27-59E
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-08-15
    Description: Experimental and theoretical investigations have been made to determine the water-landing characteristics of a conical-shaped reentry capsule having a segment of a sphere as the bottom. For the experimental portion of the investigation, a 1/12-scale model capsule and a full-scale capsule were tested for nominal flight paths of 65 deg and 90 deg (vertical), a range of contact attitudes from -30 deg to 30 deg, and a full-scale vertical velocity of 30 feet per second at contact. Accelerations were measured by accelerometers installed at the centers of gravity of the model and full-scale capsules. For the model test the accelerations were measured along the X-axis (roll) and Z-axis (yaw) and for the full-scale test they were measured along the X-axis (roll), Y-axis (pitch), and Z-axis (yaw). Motions and displacements of the capsules that occurred after contact were determined from high-speed motion pictures. The theoretical investigation was conducted to determine the accelerations that might occur along the X-axis when the capsule contacted the water from a 90 deg flight path at a 0 deg attitude. Assuming a rigid body, computations were made from equations obtained by utilizing the principle of the conservation of momentum. The agreement among data obtained from the model test, the full-scale test, and the theory was very good. The accelerations along the X-axis, for a vertical flight path and 0 deg attitude, were in the order of 40g. For a 65 deg flight path and 0 deg attitude, the accelerations along the X-axis were in the order of 50g. Changes in contact attitude, in either the positive or negative direction from 0 deg attitude, considerably reduced the magnitude of the accelerations measured along the X-axis. Accelerations measured along the Y- and Z-axes were relatively small at all test conditions.
    Keywords: Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer
    Type: NASA-MEMO-5-23-59L
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-08-15
    Description: A previous analysis of turbulent heat transfer and flow with variable fluid properties in smooth passages is extended to flow over a flat plate at high Mach numbers, and the results are compared with experimental data. Velocity and temperature distributions are calculated for a boundary layer with appreciative effects of frictional heating and external heat transfer. Viscosity and thermal conductivity are assumed to vary as a power or the temperature, while Prandtl number and specific heat are taken as constant. Skin-friction and heat-transfer coefficients are calculated and compared with the incompressible values. The rate of boundary-layer growth is obtained for various Mach numbers.
    Keywords: Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer
    Type: NASA-TR-R-17
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-08-15
    Description: A small total-pressure tube resting against a flat-plate surface was used as a Stanton tube and calibrated as a skin-friction meter at various subsonic and supersonic speeds. Laminar flow was maintained for the supersonic runs at a Mach number M(sub infinity) of 2. At speeds between M(sub infinity) = 1.33 and M(sub infinity) = 1.87, the calibrations were carried-out in a turbulent boundary layer. The subsonic flows were found to be in transition. The skin-friction readings of a floating-element type of balance served as the reference values against which the Stanton tube was calibrated. A theoretical model was developed which, for moderate values of the shear parameter tau, accurately predicts the performance of the Stanton tube in subsonic and supersonic flows. A "shear correction factor" was found to explain the deviations from the basic model when T became too large. Compressibility effects were important only in the case of turbulent supersonic flows, and they did not alter the form of the calibration curve. The test Reynolds numbers, based on the distance from the leading edge and free-stream conditions, ranged from 70,000 to 875,000. The turbulent-boundary-layer Reynolds numbers, based on momentum thickness, varied between 650 and 2,300. Both laminar and turbulent velocity profiles were taken and the effect of pressure gradient on the calibration was investigated.
    Keywords: Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer
    Type: NASA-MEMO-2-17-59W
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