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  • Fisheries  (17)
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2012-11-11
    Description: Kurzfassung Im Rahmen einer Bachelorarbeit wurde untersucht, ob die Larven des frühjahrslaichenden Herings der westlichen Ostsee im Greifswalder Bodden eine inhomogene vertikale Verteilung aufweisen, da in bisherigen Studien aufgrund der niedrigen Gewässertiefe des Boddens von hydrografischer Durchmischung und somit homogener Ichthyoplanktonverteilung ausgegangen wurde. Dazu wurden zwei Nullhypothesen überprüft, eine, die annimmt, dass Heringslarven allgemein im Greifswalder Bodden homogen verteilt sind, eine zweite, nach der auch verschiedenen Längenklassen der Heringe homogen verteilt sind. Die Proben, die Mitte April an drei verschiedenen Stationen im Greifswalder Bodden genommen wurden, zeigten signifikante Unterschiede der Larvenabundanzen allgemein zwischen den beprobten Tiefenstufen als auch der Längenklassen zwischen den Tiefenstufen, sodass beide Nullhypothesen abzulehnen sind. Eine homogene Verteilung der Heringslarven kann ausgeschlossen werden. Abstract Larvae of the Western Baltic Spring Spawning Herring were sampled in the Greifswalder Bodden in the course of a Bachelor Thesis to investigate whether they are inhomogeneously vertically distributed. Previous research assumed homogeneous vertical distribution because of the shallowness of the Greifswalder Bodden due to hydrographical mixing of the water and the ichthyoplankton. Two null hypotheses were tested, one which presumes even vertical distribution of the herring larvae and another which presumes even vertical distribution within different length classes in the Greifswalder Bodden. Sampling took place at three different stations in the Greifswalder Bodden during April and results showed significant differences of the larvae abundances between the sampled depths and also significant differences of the length classes between the sampled depths. Therefore both null hypotheses can be rejected and a homogeneous vertical distribution of the herring larvae in the Greifswalder Bodden can be excluded.
    Keywords: Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2012-11-10
    Description: The North European fish stocks are assessed annually by ICES working groups. The results are evaluated biannually in two meetings of the Advisory Committee for Fisheries Management (ACFM) at ICES. Based on the working group assessments, ACFM formulates an advice for fisheries management and suggests a total allowable catch (TAC) which is based strictly on biological grounds. The summaries of the state of some selected stocks which are given here, are derived from the ACFM advice, formulated during the most recent Oktober 1998 meeting. For many of the fish stocks the precautionary approach is still in the process of implementation, however for most of them the management and target reference points have been fully defined by now.
    Keywords: Management ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2012-11-10
    Description: Financial support is going to be applied for from the European Commission in order to establish the European Fish Ageing Network (EFAN). The project, which was planned and initiated from Norway (Floedevigen) is supposed to be a concerted action from 14 European Countries involving about 35 institutions. The primary aim of the network is to coordinate the research in age reading, especially the improvement of data bases for reference material, the transformation of research (e.g. daily ring formation in otoliths) to each interested reader. Moreover, the applied financial support is supposed to be preliminary spent for travel of researcher and technicians to other institutes where the same fish species are aged. Reference material is supposed to be sent to the institutes for check-reading. Specific workshops will be held in cases where heterogeneous results occur from check-reading the reference material.
    Keywords: Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2012-11-10
    Description: The North-European fish stocks are assessed annually by ICES working groups. The results are evaluated twice annually in two meetings of the Advisory Committee for Fisheries Management (ACFM) at ICES. Based on the working group assessments, ACFM formulates an advice for the fisheries management and suggests a total allowable catch (TAC) which is based strictly on biological grounds. The summaries of the state of some selected stocks which are given here, are derived from the ACFM advice, formulated during the most recent October 1999 meeting. For many of the fish stocks the precautionary approach has been implemented now, and for most of them the target reference points have been defined. As a result, most of the stocks are outside safe biological limits or are harvested in disaccordance with the precautionary approach. Only 10 stocks of those evaluated during this autumn meeting were found to be within safe biological limits.
    Keywords: Management ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2012-11-10
    Description: Based on the results from egg and larvae surveys, mackerel and horse mackerel are thought to form three more or less distinct stocks each in the North Sea and in the waters west of the British Isles. These are firstly the southern stocks in the southern part of the English Channel, Celtic Sea and Bay of Biscay, secondly the North Sea and finally the western stocks of both species, loeated between the Shetlands and southern Norway. It is argued here that in view of the high mobility and the extended seasonal migrations of both species a c1ear separation of the stocks can hardly be maintained. In this context the results of the 1995 mackerel and horse mackerel egg survey to the southern spawning location is presented.
    Keywords: Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: Comparative night and day catches of herring larvae were taken during the Rügen-Herring-Larval-Survey (RHLS) in 2007 and 2008 in the Greifswalder Bodden which is the main spawning area of the Western Baltic Spring Spawning Herring. The quantities and the size composition of larvae caught during night and day were examined. During night more larvae were caught compared to the samples taken at daytime, especially with larvae larger than 25 mm. This indicates avoidance reactions, which increase with the developmental stage of the larvae. The differences of the night and day catches are relatively constant until a length of about 25 mm, thus the night/day effect does not influence estimations concerning larvae smaller than 25 mm (e.g. N20 index). There might be an impact on estimations for larger larvae due to the night/day effect. For further research other aspects like cloud coverage at night, phase of the moon, underwater visibility and turbidity should be taken into account. These aspects might influence the avoidance reactions.
    Keywords: Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: Nearshore 0-group western Baltic cod are frequently caught as bycatch in the commercial pound net fishery. Pound net fishermen from the Danish Isle of Funen and Lolland and the German Isle of Fehmarn have recorded their catches of small cod between September and December 2008. Abundance patterns were analysed, particularly concerning the influence of abiotic factors (hydrography, meteorology) and the differences between sampling sites. Catch per unit effort (CPUE) differed by site and location, whereas CPUE were highest at Lolland. Correlation between catch and wind/currents were generally weak. However, wind directions and current speeds seem to affect the catch rates. Finally an algorithm was developed to calculate a recruitment index for western Baltic cod recruitment success based on previous analyses.
    Keywords: Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2012-11-10
    Description: To improve the cod stocks in the Baltic Sea, a number of regulations have recently been established by the International Baltic Sea Fisheries Commission (IBSFC) and the European Commission. According to these, fishermen are obliged to use nets with escape windows (BACOMA nets) with a mesh size of the escape window of 120 mm until end of September 2003. These nets however, retain only fish much larger than the legal minimum landing size would al-low. Due to the present stock structure only few of such large fish are however existent. As a consequence fishermen use a legal alternative net. This is a conventional trawl with a cod-end of 130 mm diamond-shaped meshes (IBSFC-rules of 1st April 2002), to be increased to 140 mm on 1st September 2003, according to the mentioned IBSFC-rule. Due legal alterations of the net by the fishermen (e.g. use of extra stiff net material) these nets have acquired extremely low selective properties, i. e. they catch very small fish and produce great amounts of discards. Due to the increase of the minimum landing size from 35 to 38 cm for cod in the Baltic, the amount of discards has even increased since the beginning of 2003. Experiments have now been carried out with the BACOMAnet on German and Swedish commercial and research vessels since arguments were brought forward that the BACOMA net was not yet sufficiently tested on commercial vessels. The results of all experiments conducted so far, are compiled and evaluated here. As a result of the Swedish, Danish and German initiative and research the European Commission reacted upon this in June 2003 and rejected the increase of the diamond-meshed non-BACOMA net from 130 mm to 140mm in September 2003. To protect the cod stocks in the Baltic Sea more effectively the use of traditional diamond meshed cod-ends with-out escape window are prohibited in community waters without derogation, becoming effective 1st of September 2003. To enable more effective and simplified control of the bottom trawl fishery in the Baltic Sea the principle of a ”One-Net-Rule“ is enforced. This is going to be the BACOMA net, with the meshes of the escape window being 110 mm for the time being. The description of the BACOMA net as given in the IBSFC-rules no.10 (revision of the 28th session, Berlin 2002) concentrates on the cod-end and the escape window but only to a less extent on the design and mesh-composition of the remaining parts of the net, such as belly and funnel and many details. Thus, the present description is not complete and leaves, according to fishermen, ample opportunity for manipulation. An initiative has been started in Germany with joint effort from scientists and the fishery to better describe the entire net and to produce a proposal for a more comprehensive description, leaving less space for manipulation. A proposal in this direction is given here and shall be seen as a starting point for a discussion and development towards an internationally uniform net, which is agreed amongst the fishery, scientists and politicians. The Baltic Sea fishery is invited to comment on this proposal, and recommendations for further improvement and specifications are welcomed. Once the design is agreed by the Baltic Fishermen Association, it shall be proposed to the IBSFC and European Commission via the Baltic Fishermen Association.
    Keywords: Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2012-05-08
    Description: The spring session of ACFM gave advice for a number of stocks in the North Atlantic, North Sea and Baltic. The present assessment of the situation is given here for stocks of higher importance for the German fishery. These are: Blue Whiting: the stock is still relatively high, this, however, will not last very long, due to too intense fishing. Cod in Kattegat: stock is outside safe biological limits. No immediate recovery in sight. Cod in 22–24 (Baltic): stock is inside save biological limits. F, however, is above the recommendation of the IBSFC. Greenland Halibut: state of the stock not quite clear. The present fishing intensity seems to be sustainable. Herring (Atlanto- scandian, Norwegian spring spawner): stock is within safe biological limits, weak recruitment of the recent years will lead to a reduction of biomass. Herring: for Baltic spring spawner in 22–24 and IIIa still no increasing tendency detectable. North Sea Herring: further increasing tendency, with 900 000 t over B lim, good recruitment. Herring in VIa: stable. Redfish: generally decreasing tendency observed, a reduction of the fishery is recommended. Signs of recovery, however, visible for some units
    Keywords: Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2012-11-10
    Description: The spring session of ACFM gave advice for a number of stocks in the North Atlantic, North Sea and Baltic. The situation is given here for stocks of higher importance for the German fishery. These are: Blue Whiting: A short term upwards trend is observed, which, however, will not last very long, due to too intense fishing. Cod in Kattegat: Stock is outside safe biological limits. No immediate recovery in sight. Cod in Sub. Div. 22– 24 (Baltic): Stock is outside safe biological limits. Due to weak recruitment not immediate recovery in prospect. Greenland Halibut: Stock outside safe biological limits and still in downward trend. Herring (atlanto-scandian, Norw. spring spawner): Stock inside safe biological limits, weak recruitment of the past 5 years will, however, lead to a reduction of the biomass. Redfish: Generally decreasing tendency observed, a reduction of the fishery is recommended.
    Keywords: Management ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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