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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2011-03-25
    Description: Arising from M. A. Nowak, C. E. Tarnita & E. O. Wilson 466, 1057-1062 (2010); Nowak et al. reply. Nowak et al. argue that inclusive fitness theory has been of little value in explaining the natural world, and that it has led to negligible progress in explaining the evolution of eusociality. However, we believe that their arguments are based upon a misunderstanding of evolutionary theory and a misrepresentation of the empirical literature. We will focus our comments on three general issues.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3836173/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3836173/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Abbot, Patrick -- Abe, Jun -- Alcock, John -- Alizon, Samuel -- Alpedrinha, Joao A C -- Andersson, Malte -- Andre, Jean-Baptiste -- van Baalen, Minus -- Balloux, Francois -- Balshine, Sigal -- Barton, Nick -- Beukeboom, Leo W -- Biernaskie, Jay M -- Bilde, Trine -- Borgia, Gerald -- Breed, Michael -- Brown, Sam -- Bshary, Redouan -- Buckling, Angus -- Burley, Nancy T -- Burton-Chellew, Max N -- Cant, Michael A -- Chapuisat, Michel -- Charnov, Eric L -- Clutton-Brock, Tim -- Cockburn, Andrew -- Cole, Blaine J -- Colegrave, Nick -- Cosmides, Leda -- Couzin, Iain D -- Coyne, Jerry A -- Creel, Scott -- Crespi, Bernard -- Curry, Robert L -- Dall, Sasha R X -- Day, Troy -- Dickinson, Janis L -- Dugatkin, Lee Alan -- El Mouden, Claire -- Emlen, Stephen T -- Evans, Jay -- Ferriere, Regis -- Field, Jeremy -- Foitzik, Susanne -- Foster, Kevin -- Foster, William A -- Fox, Charles W -- Gadau, Juergen -- Gandon, Sylvain -- Gardner, Andy -- Gardner, Michael G -- Getty, Thomas -- Goodisman, Michael A D -- Grafen, Alan -- Grosberg, Rick -- Grozinger, Christina M -- Gouyon, Pierre-Henri -- Gwynne, Darryl -- Harvey, Paul H -- Hatchwell, Ben J -- Heinze, Jurgen -- Helantera, Heikki -- Helms, Ken R -- Hill, Kim -- Jiricny, Natalie -- Johnstone, Rufus A -- Kacelnik, Alex -- Kiers, E Toby -- Kokko, Hanna -- Komdeur, Jan -- Korb, Judith -- Kronauer, Daniel -- Kummerli, Rolf -- Lehmann, Laurent -- Linksvayer, Timothy A -- Lion, Sebastien -- Lyon, Bruce -- Marshall, James A R -- McElreath, Richard -- Michalakis, Yannis -- Michod, Richard E -- Mock, Douglas -- Monnin, Thibaud -- Montgomerie, Robert -- Moore, Allen J -- Mueller, Ulrich G -- Noe, Ronald -- Okasha, Samir -- Pamilo, Pekka -- Parker, Geoff A -- Pedersen, Jes S -- Pen, Ido -- Pfennig, David -- Queller, David C -- Rankin, Daniel J -- Reece, Sarah E -- Reeve, Hudson K -- Reuter, Max -- Roberts, Gilbert -- Robson, Simon K A -- Roze, Denis -- Rousset, Francois -- Rueppell, Olav -- Sachs, Joel L -- Santorelli, Lorenzo -- Schmid-Hempel, Paul -- Schwarz, Michael P -- Scott-Phillips, Tom -- Shellmann-Sherman, Janet -- Sherman, Paul W -- Shuker, David M -- Smith, Jeff -- Spagna, Joseph C -- Strassmann, Beverly -- Suarez, Andrew V -- Sundstrom, Liselotte -- Taborsky, Michael -- Taylor, Peter -- Thompson, Graham -- Tooby, John -- Tsutsui, Neil D -- Tsuji, Kazuki -- Turillazzi, Stefano -- Ubeda, Francisco -- Vargo, Edward L -- Voelkl, Bernard -- Wenseleers, Tom -- West, Stuart A -- West-Eberhard, Mary Jane -- Westneat, David F -- Wiernasz, Diane C -- Wild, Geoff -- Wrangham, Richard -- Young, Andrew J -- Zeh, David W -- Zeh, Jeanne A -- Zink, Andrew -- BB/H022716/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2011 Mar 24;471(7339):E1-4; author reply E9-10. doi: 10.1038/nature09831.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21430721" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Altruism ; Animals ; *Biological Evolution ; Cooperative Behavior ; Female ; Game Theory ; *Genetic Fitness ; Genetics, Population ; Heredity ; Humans ; Male ; *Models, Biological ; Phenotype ; Reproducibility of Results ; *Selection, Genetic ; Sex Ratio
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2006-05-06
    Description: Given the choice of waiting for an adverse outcome or getting it over with quickly, many people choose the latter. Theoretical models of decision-making have assumed that this occurs because there is a cost to waiting-i.e., dread. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we measured the neural responses to waiting for a cutaneous electric shock. Some individuals dreaded the outcome so much that, when given a choice, they preferred to receive more voltage rather than wait. Even when no decision was required, these extreme dreaders were distinguishable from those who dreaded mildly by the rate of increase of neural activity in the posterior elements of the cortical pain matrix. This suggests that dread derives, in part, from the attention devoted to the expected physical response and not simply from fear or anxiety. Although these differences were observed during a passive waiting procedure, they correlated with individual behavior in a subsequent choice paradigm, providing evidence for a neurobiological link between the experienced disutility of dread and subsequent decisions about unpleasant outcomes.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1820741/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1820741/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Berns, Gregory S -- Chappelow, Jonathan -- Cekic, Milos -- Zink, Caroline F -- Pagnoni, Giuseppe -- Martin-Skurski, Megan E -- DA00367/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- DA016434/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- K08 DA000367/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R01 DA016434/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2006 May 5;312(5774):754-8.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, 101 Woodruff Circle, Suite 4000, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA. gberns@emory.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16675703" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; *Anxiety ; Brain Mapping ; Cerebral Cortex/*physiology ; Cues ; *Decision Making ; Electroshock ; *Emotions ; *Fear ; Female ; Humans ; Magnetic Resonance Imaging ; Male ; Models, Psychological ; Pain/physiopathology ; Time Factors
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2008-03-18
    Description: Common human diseases result from the interplay of many genes and environmental factors. Therefore, a more integrative biology approach is needed to unravel the complexity and causes of such diseases. To elucidate the complexity of common human diseases such as obesity, we have analysed the expression of 23,720 transcripts in large population-based blood and adipose tissue cohorts comprehensively assessed for various phenotypes, including traits related to clinical obesity. In contrast to the blood expression profiles, we observed a marked correlation between gene expression in adipose tissue and obesity-related traits. Genome-wide linkage and association mapping revealed a highly significant genetic component to gene expression traits, including a strong genetic effect of proximal (cis) signals, with 50% of the cis signals overlapping between the two tissues profiled. Here we demonstrate an extensive transcriptional network constructed from the human adipose data that exhibits significant overlap with similar network modules constructed from mouse adipose data. A core network module in humans and mice was identified that is enriched for genes involved in the inflammatory and immune response and has been found to be causally associated to obesity-related traits.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Emilsson, Valur -- Thorleifsson, Gudmar -- Zhang, Bin -- Leonardson, Amy S -- Zink, Florian -- Zhu, Jun -- Carlson, Sonia -- Helgason, Agnar -- Walters, G Bragi -- Gunnarsdottir, Steinunn -- Mouy, Magali -- Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur -- Eiriksdottir, Gudrun H -- Bjornsdottir, Gyda -- Reynisdottir, Inga -- Gudbjartsson, Daniel -- Helgadottir, Anna -- Jonasdottir, Aslaug -- Jonasdottir, Adalbjorg -- Styrkarsdottir, Unnur -- Gretarsdottir, Solveig -- Magnusson, Kristinn P -- Stefansson, Hreinn -- Fossdal, Ragnheidur -- Kristjansson, Kristleifur -- Gislason, Hjortur G -- Stefansson, Tryggvi -- Leifsson, Bjorn G -- Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur -- Lamb, John R -- Gulcher, Jeffrey R -- Reitman, Marc L -- Kong, Augustine -- Schadt, Eric E -- Stefansson, Kari -- England -- Nature. 2008 Mar 27;452(7186):423-8. doi: 10.1038/nature06758. Epub 2008 Mar 16.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉deCODE genetics, 101 Reykjavik, Iceland.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18344981" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adipose Tissue/metabolism ; Adolescent ; Adult ; Aged ; Aged, 80 and over ; Animals ; Blood/metabolism ; Body Mass Index ; Cohort Studies ; European Continental Ancestry Group/genetics ; Female ; *Gene Expression Profiling ; Gene Expression Regulation/*genetics ; Genome, Human ; Humans ; Iceland ; Lod Score ; Male ; Mice ; Middle Aged ; Obesity/*genetics ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics ; Quantitative Trait Loci/genetics ; Sample Size ; Waist-Hip Ratio
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2016-03-10
    Description: The origins of the genus Homo are murky, but by H. erectus, bigger brains and bodies had evolved that, along with larger foraging ranges, would have increased the daily energetic requirements of hominins. Yet H. erectus differs from earlier hominins in having relatively smaller teeth, reduced chewing muscles, weaker maximum bite force capabilities, and a relatively smaller gut. This paradoxical combination of increased energy demands along with decreased masticatory and digestive capacities is hypothesized to have been made possible by adding meat to the diet, by mechanically processing food using stone tools, or by cooking. Cooking, however, was apparently uncommon until 500,000 years ago, and the effects of carnivory and Palaeolithic processing techniques on mastication are unknown. Here we report experiments that tested how Lower Palaeolithic processing technologies affect chewing force production and efficacy in humans consuming meat and underground storage organs (USOs). We find that if meat comprised one-third of the diet, the number of chewing cycles per year would have declined by nearly 2 million (a 13% reduction) and total masticatory force required would have declined by 15%. Furthermore, by simply slicing meat and pounding USOs, hominins would have improved their ability to chew meat into smaller particles by 41%, reduced the number of chews per year by another 5%, and decreased masticatory force requirements by an additional 12%. Although cooking has important benefits, it appears that selection for smaller masticatory features in Homo would have been initially made possible by the combination of using stone tools and eating meat.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Zink, Katherine D -- Lieberman, Daniel E -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 24;531(7595):500-3. doi: 10.1038/nature16990. Epub 2016 Mar 9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Human Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, 11 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26958832" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; Animals ; Bite Force ; Carnivory ; Diet/*history ; Female ; Food Handling/*history ; Goats ; History, Ancient ; Hominidae ; Humans ; Male ; Mastication/*physiology ; Meat/*history ; Particle Size ; Plants ; Tool Use Behavior ; Tooth/physiology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 1992-12-11
    Description: Infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is frequently accompanied by the AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) dementia complex. The role of specific HIV genetic elements in the pathogenesis of central nervous system (CNS) disease is not clear. Transgenic mice were constructed that contained the long terminal repeats (LTRs) of two CNS-derived strains and a T cell tropic strain of HIV-1. Only mice generated with CNS-derived LTRs directed expression in the CNS, particularly in neurons. Thus, some strains of HIV-1 have a selective advantage for gene expression in the brain, and neurons can supply the cellular factors necessary for their transcription.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Corboy, J R -- Buzy, J M -- Zink, M C -- Clements, J E -- AI27297/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI28748/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- NS07000/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- etc. -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1992 Dec 11;258(5089):1804-8.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Division of Comparative Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1465618" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Brain/*physiology ; Central Nervous System/*physiology ; Female ; Gene Expression ; *HIV Long Terminal Repeat ; HIV-1/*genetics ; Intestine, Small/physiology ; Lung/physiology ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Mice, Inbred DBA ; Mice, Transgenic ; Ocular Physiological Phenomena ; Organ Specificity ; RNA, Messenger/analysis/*metabolism ; Recombinant Fusion Proteins/metabolism ; Spinal Cord/physiology ; Thymus Gland/physiology ; beta-Galactosidase/genetics/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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