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  • FLUID MECHANICS AND HEAT TRANSFER  (1)
  • captive breeding  (1)
  • protected areas  (1)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-7160
    Keywords: captive breeding ; in situ conservation ; ex situ conservation ; zoos ; protected areas
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Abstract Growing deterministic and stochastic threats to many wild populations of large vertebrates have focused attention on the conservation significance of captive breeding and subsequent reintroduction. However, work on both gorillas and black rhinos questions this shift in emphasis. In these species, field-based conservation can be effective if properly supported and, although this is not cheap, per capita costs may still be considerably lower than for ex situ propagation in captivity. Here we attempt to broaden the scope of this debate by contrasting the breeding success and costs of in situ and captive programmes for a range of threatened mammals. Data are scarce, but we find that across nine large-bodied genera, in situ conservation achieves comparable rates of population growth to those seen in established captive breeding programmes. Moreover, comparing budgets of well-protected reserves with zoos' own estimates of maintenance costs and the costs of zoo adoption schemes, we find that per capita costs for effective in situ conservation are consistently lower than those of maintenance in captivity. Captive breeding may be more cost-effective for smaller-bodied taxa, and will often remain desirable for large mammals restricted to one or two vulnerable wild populations. However, our results, coupled with the fact that effective in situ conservation protects intact ecosystems rather than single species, lead us to suggest that zoos might maximize their contribution to large mammal conservation by investing where possible in well-managed field-based initiatives, rather than establishing additional ex situ breeding programmes.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Material response solutions for the forebody heat shield on the candidate 310-kg Galileo Probe are presented. A charring material ablation analysis predicts thermochemical surface recession, insulation thickness, and total required heat shield mass. Benchmark shock layer solutions provide the imposed entry heating environments on the ablating surface. Heat shield sizing results are given for a nominal entry into modeled nominal and cool-heavy Jovian atmospheres, and for two heat-shield property models. The nominally designed heat shield requires a mass of at least 126 kg and would require an additional 13 kg to survive entry into the less probable cool-heavy atmosphere. The material-property model with a 30% surface reflectance reduces these mass requirements by as much as 16%.
    Keywords: FLUID MECHANICS AND HEAT TRANSFER
    Type: AIAA PAPER 81-1073 , Thermophysics Conference; Jun 23, 1981 - Jun 25, 1981; Palo Alto, CA
    Format: text
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